Wednesday, August 26, 2020

First And Second Reconstructions Essays - Reconstruction Era

First And Second Reconstructions Essays - Reconstruction Era First and Second Reconstructions The First and Second Reconstructions held out the incredible guarantee of redressing racial treacheries in America. The First Recreation, rising out of the tumult of the Civil War had as its objectives correspondence for Blacks in casting a ballot, governmental issues, and utilization of open offices. The Second Reconstruction developing out of the blasting economy of the 1950's, had as its objectives, combination, the finish of Jim Crow and the more undefined objective of making America a biracial majority rules system where, the children of previous slaves and the children of previous slave holders will have the option to plunk down together at the table of fellowship. Even however the two developments, were a result of high expectations they flopped in achieving their objectives. Conceived in trust, they kicked the bucket in despair, as the two developments saw a significant number of their benefits washed away. I propose to look at why they flopped in understanding their objectives. My proposal is that inability to fuse financial equity for Blacks in both developments prompted the disappointment of the First and Second Reconstruction. The First Reconstruction came after the Civil War and kept going till 1877. The political, social, and financial conditions after the Common War characterized the objectives of the First Reconstruction. Right now the Congress was separated politically on issues that became out of the Common War: Black fairness, revamping the South, readmitting Southern states to Union, and concluding who might control government.1 Socially, the South was in turmoil. Recently liberated slaves meandered the South in the wake of having left their previous experts, and the White populace was profoundly crushed, uncomfortable with what lay ahead. Financially, the South was likewise crushed: estates lay demolished, railways destroyed, the arrangement of slave work wrecked, and urban areas burned to the ground. The monetary state of ex-slaves after the Civil War was similarly as dubious; many had left previous bosses and meandered the highways.2 In the midst of the post Civil War disorder, different political gatherings were scrambling to advance their plans. To start with, Southern Democrats, a party contained pioneers of the alliance and other affluent Southern whites, looked to end what they saw as Northern control of the South. They additionally tried to organize Black Codes, by constraining the privileges of Blacks to move, vote, travel, and change jobs,3 which like subjugation, would give a satisfactory and modest work gracefully for manors. Second, Moderate Republicans needed to seek after a strategy of compromise among North and South, and yet guarantee subjugation was abolished.4 Third, Radical Republicans, involved of Northern government officials, were emphatically contradicted to subjugation, unsympathetic toward the South, needed to ensure recently free slaves, and keep there lion's share in Congress.5 The fourth political component, at the end of the Civil War was President Andrew Johnson whose significant objective was binding together the country. The fifth component were different periphery gatherings such as, abolitionists and Quakers. Unequivocally roused by standard and a confidence in correspondence, they accepted that Blacks required fairness in American culture, despite the fact that they contrasted on what the idea of that ought to be.6 The Northern Radical Republicans, with a larger part in Congress, risen as the political gathering that set the objectives for Reconstruction which was to keep bondage from rising again in the South. From the start, the Radical Republicans figured this could be practiced by prohibiting bondage with the section of the Thirteenth Amendment. In any case Southern Democrats in their mission to reestablish their standard in the South brought back subjugation in everything except name, by passing Black Codes as ahead of schedule as 1865. Both Moderate Republicans and Radical Republicans in Congress responded. Combining in 1866, they passed a bill to expand the life and obligations of the Freedmen's Bureau to secure recently liberated slaves against the different Black Codes. President Johnson vetoed the bill, yet Radical and Moderate Republicans in the end had the option to pass it.7 The Black Codes and President Johnson's veto of all Recreation enactment that was troublesome toward the South caused Moderate and Radical Republicans to change their objectives from just finishing bondage to looking for political uniformity and casting a ballot rights for Blacks.8 The new objectives, depended on helpful and political contemplations. Northerners had become progressively thoughtful to the situation of the Blacks in the South after various very much exposed occurrences in which honest Blacks were irritated, beaten, and killed.9

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Science, Health, and Medicine

Science, Health/Medicine The 1980s was an immense achievement for science and medication. A great deal of medications were developed and clinical systems were completed just because. A portion of the restorative innovations were: * 1980, the hepatitis-B immunization. * 1982, human development hormone hereditarily designed. * 1983, Soft bifocal contact focal point created. * 1986, Synthetic skin designed by G. Gregory Gallico, III. * 1987, the presentation of Prozac; it changed the treatment of sorrow. * 1989, The RU-486 (premature birth pill) created. In 1982, the main ever counterfeit human heart, made by Dr.Robert Jarvik, was embedded into Barney Clark; he made due for 112 days. In 1984, in the Loma Linda Medical Center, child Faye's heart is explanted and supplanted with a primate heart. She made due for 3 weeks however kicked the bucket of a kidney disease which could or could have not have been brought about by the new heart her body may have been dismissing. Stephanie Fae Beauc lair Stephanie Fae Beauclair In 1984, analysts distinguished the infection that caused AIDS as HIV and in 1986, it was perceived that AIDS was transmitted through hetero contact just as gay contact. Unnaturally conceived child (In vitro fertilisation)In vitro treatment is where the egg is prepared by the sperm outside of the body in a test tube and is a strategy that is utilized for individuals who aren’t ready to have an infant the common way. When the egg has been treated outside the body, it is moved into the uterus with the goal that it can have a characteristic birth like some other infant. Despite the fact that the first in vitro infant was conceived in 1978, the quantity of IVF babies had ascended during the 80s due to immense enhancements to the treatment. Australia’s first IVF infant was conceived in 1980, USA’s in 1981 and in Sweden and France, 1982.

Annodated Bibliography essays

Annodated Bibliography papers 1. Congressional Record House. Congressmen in close to battle. Page 9552 May 20,1924. Washington: U.S. house, 1924. Congressman Mclafferty (R) of CA and Howard (D) of Nebraska nearly go to a clench hand a sleeves over protesting method. The noble men both had issue the wished tended to before the brake of the early meeting both charged the other yet other congressmen kept them separated. 2 Congressional Records House. Venereal sickness in the District of Columbia, address of bill H.R. 491 sec.2 68th congress first meeting may 14 26 1924. A directed portrayal of a meeting of congress wherein, the issue of Soldiers proclaiming that they have a venereal infections to the appointed authority under the watchful eye of showing up in court. The report refers to wellbeing authorities structure the leading body of wellbeing in Indiana. He makes asserts that out of 28 young men accepted into the administration 27 have a venereal infection. He would refer to Venereal ailments as the best destroyer of humanity. 3. Congressional Records House. Informal sparring with Religion. Page A4602. Oct 10, 1941. This article is a rejoinder to the remarks made by the president from Hon. Henry C. Dworshak. The article talked on the case that strict opportunity in the Soviet Russia was equivalent to that of strict opportunity in America. The remarks made by the president were made in order to unify a collusion with Soviet Russia and America. 4. Congressional Records House. Perceptions from Washington, exstention of comments. October 27, 1941. A portrayal recounting the initiating of the new USS Indiana. The report additionally recounts the increments of regular citizen work during wartime for military creation. An arrangement is additionally spread out that portrays the military enlistment of non military personnel organizations for wartime creation. 5. House of hall Great Britain Sessions Papers. Page 43. 1854 1845 Table demonstrating the quantity of people submitted or bailed for trail, charged mind... <!

Friday, August 21, 2020

Accounting Class, pick topic below Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Bookkeeping Class, pick subject underneath - Essay Example While a few people mean to work for as long as possible, especially in light of the fact that inaction and loss of acclimated status can bring wretchedness, ailment, and even early demise, it is constantly lovely to examine that one has a retirement fund to swear by when a possibility or extraordinary requirement for cash emerges. Whatever your circumstance - regardless of whether you need to keep working - youll need to do some getting ready for what's to come. (Shwab-Pomerantz and Schwab, 2002). Consequently everybody should start to get ready for retirement in any event, during the initial hardly any long periods of work or beginning a business. Retirement arranging, as per the Small Business Encyclopedia, depicts the budgetary methodologies people utilize during their working a very long time to guarantee that they will meet their objectives for money related security upon retirement. This applies to independently employed people, entrepreneurs, and representatives of organizations enormous and little (Retirement arranging, SBE) Retirement arranging was obscure before the twentieth century in light of the fact that the US national economy and apparently the economies in different pieces of the world were still prevalently agrarian. Ranchers drudging in the fields kept on working until they could no longer do physical work, and moved possession and the executives of their properties to their oldest youngsters as a byproduct of administrations to them during their mature age (US History Encyclopedia). Indeed, even with the beginning of industrialization, there were as yet a set number of workers, and cultivating kept on overwhelming as a methods for vocation. As laborers matured, they kept on working utilizing their abilities and insight in lieu of solidarity and endurance to stay utilized in their later years. (Retirement arranging, US) Afterward, in view of worries about profitability and proficiency in the working environment, it was esteemed important to supplant maturing laborers with youthful and solid ones. There was concern and dread about these

Friday, August 14, 2020

To Micromanage or Not to Micromanage

To Micromanage or Not to Micromanage © | PichiIn this article, I explore 1) an  introduction to micromanagement, 2) signs of micromanagement, 3) micromanagers vs. hands on managers, 4) the need for micromanagement, 5) arguments for and against micromanagement, 6) how to micromanage successfully, 7) how to deal with micromanagement, and 8) a short  conclusion.INTRODUCTION TO MICROMANAGEMENTAnyone who has worked in an organization has at some point in their career either been a micromanager or has been micromanaged. It is not a pleasant feeling to be constantly closely monitored and controlled by your boss.Micromanagement can be defined as the extreme management of personnel with too much attention to minor details. A micromanager will hover over the employee and look at tiny details and offer comments and criticism, rather than instructing the employee on how to do the job and providing them with a deadline to accomplish it. In most cases, micromanagement is not considered the best form of management as it can be demoralizing and deprecatory for an employee.Micromanagers find it hard to let go of control and have difficulty in delegating responsibility. They want to do everything themselves and more often than not, end up being frustrated, and frustrating their subordinates too, because things do not get done for lack of good management. But all about micromanagement is not bad; when handled properly and applied under certain circumstances, micromanagement can reap rich benefits for organizations.SIGNS OF MICROMANAGEMENTThere are several signs of micromanagement. In order to study the impact of micromanagement on an enterprise, it is important to spot these signs. Micromanagers cannot let an employee function independently. They need to be in constant control of the process, observing in minute detail and assessing, commenting and giving suggestions, even when not required. They find it hard to delegate responsibility and end up being over involved in tasks that they could easily have left to their subordinates.Micromanagers cannot mind their own business. They have to be involved with overseeing other people’s projects too. Most of the time, they get stuck in tiny unnecessary details and refuse to look at the whole picture. Very often, if and when they find a tiny mistake or problem, they will take back the work they had delegated and try to finish it themselves. Micromanagers do not take well to initiatives shown by their subordinates nor do they appreciate independent decision making without their consent. They demand reports at every stage of progress and have a need to be in the know, and no decision can be taken without their blessing. Most of the time, the comments and inputs provided by the micromanager are counterproductive and trivial.Another quality of micromanagers is that they put  their noses in where it is not required. In other words, they involve themselves in other people’s work without discussing it with them first. They think they kno w all and do not appreciate or accept suggestions from peers, thus undermining the knowledge and experience of others. They focus on the wrong things, thus demotivating their team and killing initiative. They are rarely satisfied with the work others have produced. Most micromanagers are not well liked by their subordinates and colleagues; their team has little sense of loyalty or commitment toward their manager.MICROMANAGERS VS HANDS-ON MANAGERSA lot of micromanagers wish to describe themselves as Hands-on Managers. This is a misnomer as the two terms have completely different connotations and should not be confused.A hands-on manager will set a goal, make sure that the employee is clear about what needs to be done and the result that has to be delivered, and then, let the employee go ahead and complete the task independently. They do check on the progress but do not demand to be informed of every step or be involved in the process of completing the task.Micromanagers, on the other hand, will set out in detail as to how things are to be done and to what outcome. Then they will hover around and follow the progress in minutest detail, insisting on being informed about everything and that no decision can be made without a nod from them. They do not ever truly delegate, which eventually results in low morale and productivity.Other differences between the two are that a micromanager will not allow a subordinate to take complete charge of a whole task. They will give it piece by piece. The good managers delegate responsibility to a junior, expect them to deliver the result and do not interfere in the process.While good managers identify and observe the weaker employees more closely, they do not interfere in the work of competent employees. They adjust their role depending upon the experience and expertise of the employee. The micromanagers treat everyone alike. They take no consideration of experience or knowledge when interacting with employees.Micromanagers will pay equal attention to details for each and every task they are handed whether it is important or not. Hands-on managers adjust their priorities based on the importance of the job they are scrutinizing. Thus, you can see that there is a difference in the approach of micromanagers and hands-on managers when faced with similar situations. This fundamental difference is what separates them.There is a good video on the differences between micromanagers and effective managers. It clearly defines how the two differ.THE NEED FOR MICROMANAGEMENTDespite all the negative connotations regarding micromanagement, its not all bad. There are certain conditions in which it is actually good to micromanage. Some types of businesses have to be micromanaged in order for them to get the desired results and be profitable. There is a need for it when reviewing performances of employees and processes. Not everyone is very conscientious or responsible or even proactive; these types of people need to be micr omanaged to be productive.Micromanagement lays bare the real problems plaguing a team or a business and paves the way for improvement. Minute observations are good for spotting problem areas and dealing with them. They also help to discover inefficient and non-performing staff, who can then be pulled up or asked to leave.One of the conditions, when micromanagement is essential, is during the onboarding process when a new employee is being inducted. Another condition when it becomes necessary is when there is a problem employee who needs to be checked. If the employee is left free to continue the offensive behavior, it could spread to other employees, undermine the authority of the manager and disrupt the functioning of the organization. When under the microscope, a delinquent employee tends to be more careful of his/her performance.When a project or the company has a problem, then it is time to micromanage. Other conditions where micromanagement actually helps is when a company is s tarting out on a new project or when the company’s line of business is in an area where the employees have to work under dangerous conditions or handle hazardous materials. Under such conditions, micromanagement is good as it avoids risks, identifies problems and looks for solutions to solve the problems.ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST MICROMANAGEMENTEven though micromanagement may be good under certain conditions, it is still not something that people enjoy. It has the potential of demoralizing people, creating lack of trust and a dysfunctional work environment. No concept is all good or all bad, its success or failure depends upon the way in which it has been implemented. Though most people think that micromanagement is counterproductive, we cannot dismiss it without looking at the advantages and disadvantages of the practice before passing a verdict.When It Is Good for BusinessMicromanagement, when done properly, can be highly productive and help a company, especially for a new ventu re looking to streamline its productivity and manage resources in a more efficient manner. Micromanagement is good for a business when:Hiring new people: In order to get the best candidate for the job, it is essential to have a very methodical process in place before calling a person for an This is essential, so that time and effort are not wasted on the wrong candidate. So, scrutinizing each candidate is good.Orienting and onboarding of a new employee: It is good during the onboarding process when a new employee is being inducted. It is essential to micromanage a newbie simply because they need to be shown the ropes and the manager needs to know the capabilities of the person who has been hired. A new employee needs orientation so that he/she can have a good base on which to build his/her career within the organization.Starting new processes or ventures: When beginning a new venture or a process, it is essential to micromanage it, in order to discover any loopholes, problem areas o r bottlenecks in the process and eliminate them.Facing financial or legal problems: When a project or a company is in trouble, then micromanagement is good. It becomes essential to look at all the details, however minute, to find the cause of the problem and plug the leak so that the problem can be solved. This is the time when all employees and their work come under scrutiny and micromanagement.Employees have a track record of being problematic: If there is an employee who is known to be problematic, it is important to keep a close eye on his/her performance and actions. This may improve performance, and if it doesn’t, then perhaps it is time for you to let the employee go.Engaging in high-risk activities: People working in hazardous industries or involved in high-risk activities need to be micromanaged. This is done for their own safety. Any slip ups in such circumstances could mean life and death, and hence close attention needs to be paid.Changing strategy: If a business is ch anging strategy or making big changes within the organization, micromanagement is good. It helps everyone involved to understand the process and how the changes will impact their role and duties.Changing top management: When there is a change in top management, business owners need to micromanage so as to familiarize the new executive to the work environment. Even the most experienced person needs guidance to slip into their new role.There is a complaint about the service or product: Owners need to look into this matter and find out where the problem lies to eliminate it before too much damage is done.Profits are falling: If the profitability of a business is declining it is time to micromanage to avert disaster.When It Is Bad for BusinessExcess managing is detrimental to the growth and well-being of an organization. Micromanagement has the potential of too much scrutiny, and this can be counterproductive. It can become a problem when:It hampers growth and learning: Too much control is not good, for it kills the desire in employees to learn and grow. When an employee knows that he/she is being constantly watched and will be interrupted at every stage, they lose the desire for self-improvement and enhancement.It prevents evaluation of skills: It is difficult to assess the skills of employees who are being micromanaged, as it is unclear what they have done themselves and what they have been directed to do by the micromanager. Most micromanagers do not let their subordinates take ownership of their work.It affects employees’ performance: Over scrutinizing is demoralizing and creates self-doubts in the employees, which eventually ends in affecting their performance. The employees know that they will not be allowed to work independently or given credit and hence do not put in any extra efforts or add anything more to the task than is asked.It kills motivation and innovation: Constant criticism and scrutiny also kill initiative. When the micromanager takes over th e task, and there is no scope for inputs from anyone else, it kills innovation and creativity and demotivates the team.The micromanager loses control: A micromanager will eventually lose control over the team. Since they use only control to manage their subordinates, soon it becomes ineffective as the employees get used to the bullying, or they leave and seek employment elsewhere.There is a loss of trust and mutual appreciation: Micromanagement breeds distrust and dislike. Such an environment, within an organization, is not conducive to growth and productivity. When the atmosphere at work becomes too oppressive, the productivity drops and good employees leave.It creates dependency: Since a micromanager does not allow initiative and inputs from other people in the team, the employees learn to leave all decision-making to the manager and become totally dependent on him/her.It results in a high attrition rate: One side effect of micromanagement is a high attrition rate, where good empl oyees leave the organization and join rivals or parallel ones. Most creative and hardworking people do not like being under the microscope all the time and prefer to move on.Business partners back out: Business partners, especially financial partners, are not happy when all the power remains in the hands of one individual. Employees are there to do the work assigned to them and if they are not free to do so then the organization will be dysfunctional and this will affect profitability. This will not please the financial partners at all.It results in increased workload and burnout: When someone is micromanaging they are essentially taking on work that has been assigned to someone else. So micromanagers end up doing double the work, which they could have easily avoided if they had not micromanaged. This causes the overburdening of one individual, in this case, the micromanager, and can lead to burnout. It also hampers the production process by causing bottlenecks and delays.Now that w e know the problems, it should be fairly easy to be able to avoid the pitfalls that give micromanagement such a bad reputation.HOW TO MICROMANAGE SUCCESSFULLYMicromanagement is more prevalent than one would imagine. A lot of very successful enterprises and entrepreneurs use it to good effect. Such industry leaders use the following techniques to successfully micromanage their team.Have in-depth knowledge of the business: Micromanagement is effective if you know your business or job inside and a person who is familiar with his job can easily spot the problems and guide his/her team to eliminate it.Hard work: Good micromanagement is about hard work and dedication. It paves the way for the manager to look into all the little details of the business.Interaction with employees and clients: Strong and friendly interaction is a must if micromanagement is to be a positive force for your business. Managers need to be able to give positive guidance without being critical and by respecting the ir employee’s position, experience, and knowledge. They also need to know their clients and hence, should have a channel of customer feedback available to them.Use patience, be calm and respectful in any engagement with employees: Being over critical, irritable, impatient and insulting of peers or employees is detrimental to the good health of an organization. Micromanagers should not allow this to happen when dealing with people.Listen to your employees: Learn to listen to the employees. They are the ones who are on the job and know the problems they are facing. Do not dismiss their queries or concerns. Similarly, be ready to call out an employee who does not live up to the expectations and talk to him/her about their progress, goals and priorities.Carry out inspections regularly: Managers should carry out regular inspection of the facility and processes to be aware of what is going on in the organization and not completely rely on the reports of the managers.Set clear goals: Goa ls and their expected outcomes should be clearly defined to the team members and then responsibilities should be assigned to the team leaders. Explain that the goal and the expected outcome will be the benchmark against which all performances and progress will be evaluated.Good leaders have demonstrated that if done properly, micromanagement can be very productive for an organization irrespective of its size. The main points to keep in mind are that there should be autonomy within the organization, and the micromanagers should be careful of how they deal with the employees. The main difference between good management and bad management comes from the way employees are treated within an organization and whether their voices are heard or not.HOW TO DEAL WITH MICROMANAGEMENTIf you are a micromanager, then you need to break the habit before it is too late. If you are a victim of micromanagement, you do not have to suffer through it. In either case, you have to deal with the problem in a subtle, yet decisive way.If You Are a MicromanagerIf you are one of those managers who like to look into little details, then you need to stop doing it. Here are some tips to help you get rid of the habit:Change your attitude.Do not hang on to the trivial.Advise, don’t dictate.Believe in winning.Interact with the employees, and hear them out.Encourage your employees to approach you with their problems.Do not hover around your employees; let them get on with their work.Hire the right person for the job and hold him/her accountable.Let your employees know what you expect of them.Stop nitpicking.The biggest change has to come from you. You need to take it easy and trust your team to do its job properly, treating your peers and subordinates as people who are just as capable as you.If You Are Being MicromanagedIf you are being micromanaged by your boss, it can be extremely unpleasant and stressful. You need to get out of the situation either by taking the bull by the horn or by moving on to another job elsewhere. You can help yourself by:Talking to your manager about changeTrying to understand your manager’s point of viewLooking at your attitude and performance to see where your shortcomings lieBuilding your boss’s confidence in you and your abilityVolunteering for tasksCommunicatingAnalyzing your behavior and attitudeDiscovering your boss’s concerns and trying to alleviate them.Providing regular updates, so your boss knows what you are doingNot letting the criticism get to youTrying to stay ahead of your boss with answers, reports, feedbacks, etc.Following the rulesStaying in a job where you are being micromanaged is not good for you, your self-worth or your confidence. If you have tried everything in the books and the micromanagement and nitpicking continue, you can go speak to someone higher up in the organization about your problems, or you can find another job and move on. Here is a short, helpful article on how to deal with micromanagers.CONCLUSIONWe can see that micromanagement is not all bad; it does have its benefits in certain circumstances and conditions. If it is done in a proper manner, it can be beneficial for an organization. Managers need to be aware of their employees’ performance and attitude, but this should be done in a manner that is not hyper critical or deprecatory. They need to be able to deal with people in a respectful and polite manner, and ensure that the inputs that they are giving add to the process and do not unnecessarily bog it down with details. Employees, on the other hand, need to be proactive with their responsibilities, and if they feel they are being micromanaged, do something about it. Whether it is the micromanager or the micromanaged, both need to take stock of the situation. If the micromanagement is becoming restrictive and oppressive, try to remedy it, as sooner or later, it will start to affect the overall productivity of the organization.

Sunday, June 21, 2020

Chhau dance-drama as a folk art in Eastern India. - Free Essay Example

What are the elements and origins of the masked dance-drama of Seraikela Chhau and Purulia Chhau of Eastern Indian and to what extent are they significant to the Indian culture as a folk art? Abstract: India is a country with a rich range of various cultures and traditions. Each part of India has different ways to preserve those cultures traditions such as folk and classical dances. Folk and classical dances play a big role in the Indian culture as a way of communication. One of the dance-drama folk art that is performed in India is the Chhau dance-drama of Eastern India. There are three types of Chhau dance-dramas but this essay will focus on only two types:   the Seraikela of Bihar and the Purulia of West Bengal. Both Chhau styles are masked dance-drama forms that are unique. To understand the significance of this folk art for the Indian community, it is important to first understand the elements and the origins of the Chhau. The Chhau is very significant to the Indian culture because it is both a religious and mythological practise that has been passed on thought many generations. Not only is the Chhau dance-drama used for festive celebrations but is also used as a way to communicate moral message by the portrayal of stories from the Indian mythology. The portrayal of stories is where the theatrical aspect comes in the picture. The Chhau characters are mute so therefore, movements and masks are used instead of dialogues to show certain emotions and feelings to bring the story forwards. The study of the origins, history, costumes, music, staging, music and performers brings to the conclusion that indeed, the Chhau dance-drama is a folk art that is very significant to the Indian culture and the Indian people. Acknowledgment: I would like to thank my supervisor Tamojit Ray for his extraordinary help in guiding and advising me through the writing process of my extended essay. As Tamojit Ray is from the Eastern part of India, his advice and knowledge on the Chhau dance-drama were very useful to guide me in my essay. I would also want to thank Tamojit Ray for putting me in contact with the Chhau dance-drama Master Chandi Mahato, and his role as a translator from the local language of the area resided by Mahato to English during the telephonic interview. Table of Contents: 1 )Introduction- Folk dances in India  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚     Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   5-7 2) The history and origins of Chhau  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚     Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   7-9 3) Masks and Costumes  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   10-16   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   a. Masks  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   10-14   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   b. Costumes  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   14-16 4) Music and staging  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   16-18   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   a. Music  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   16-17   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   b. Staging  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   17-18 5) Performers and performing techniques   Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   19-20 6) Interview with Chhau master Chandi Mahato  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   20-22 7) Conclusion  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   22-23 8) Bibliography  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   23-24 9) Appendix 1  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   p.25-30 1) Introduction- Folk dances in India India is one of the very few countries in the world to possess a rich range of different cultures and traditions. Each and every region of India has a unique culture that has passed through many generations for centuries.   What I find really interesting about India is that they have well preserved their cultures and that even today, they are still practising certain traditions compared to other countries that have lost their cultures by evolving into a more modernized civilisation.   Cultures and tradition can be passed on through generations by many ways like paintings, written scripts, music, theatre and dance. Folk dances and folk theatre play a big role in the Indian culture as they are art forms that are a very efficient way of expression to the community. Folk dance is an art used to convey the local culture, legends, myths and religious beliefs of a specific region and as India has many different cultures, the folk dances vary from one region to another. Indian folk dances are the products of a variation of socio-economic classes in India. They are usually performed by ordinary people rather than professional dancers in small towns or villages where people gather together to celebrate special occasions such as harvesting, marriages, religious holidays, festivals, birth of a child etc Since in India all those festivities are celebrated quite often if ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s not every day, folk dances have become an essential part for the Indian culture.   Some folk dances which are performed in India also incorporate theatre in their dances.   Those dance-drama forms are a rural extension of the ancient theatrical tradition found in the Nathya Shastra [3].   Among other dance-drama traditions in India like Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali and a few more, Chhau is a rare and unique colourful masked dance-drama form. There are three types of Chhau named after their geographical locations; the Seraikela of Bihar, the Purulia of West Bengal and the Mayurbhanj of Orissa (Figure 1). This Essay will focus on the elements and the origins of the dance-drama form of Seraikela Chhau and Purulia Chhau and to what extent they are significant to the Indian Culture as a folk art. Why did I choose this rare form of dance-drama among others? Simply because I thought that my temporary stay in India would be the perfect occasion to discover a totally new and unknown form of art for me that is directly related to the Indi an culture. Since I am a theatre student, I think that exploring a rare form of art is an excellent way to broaden my knowledge of theatre through different cultures. I chose to write an in-depth essay about the Chhau dance-drama of Eastern India among many others also because I find the Chhau very interesting in the way it combines dance and theatre together to tell a specific story or mythology by using rhythms, movements and masks instead of dialogues like most of the theatrical forms use.   [4] Figure 1: The orange shaded area of this political map of India represents the Eastern part of India where the three types of Chhau dance-drama originated from. 2) The history and origins of Chhau: The origins of the Chhau dance-drama are still not certain as is the origin of the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Chhauà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. The dance is known as Seraikela Chhau in Jharkhand, Mayurbhanj Chhau in Orissa and Purulia Chhau in West Bengal. If we look at the basic differences between the three different styles of Chhau, the Chhau dancers of Purulia wear highly stylized masks, in Seraikela the masks are smaller, while in Mayurbhanj the dancers do not always use masks. The word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Chhauà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? is interpreted in different ways by different quarters and persons. Most of the people say that the word Chhau arises from the Sanskrit root à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Chhayaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? which means shadow and that the art originated in West Bengal. On the other hand, some people disagree and think that it had arisen from the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Chaunià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? which means camp for soldiers and that it originated from the state of Orissa. The reason being the hypothesis that the word à ¢Ã¢ ‚ ¬Ã…“chhauà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? derived from the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Chaunià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? is that the Chhau originated in the mock fights of the Oriya paikas (warriors) who fought rhythmically to the accompaniment of indigenous music instrument [10]. Basically, there is a confrontation between the good and the bad and this confrontation is portrayed by characters in the Chhau dance-drama. However, with passing of time the dance-drama started being used for many other occasions and celebrations through the year in the different states. 3) Masks and Costumes: a. Masks: Characters from the Indian mythology such as Lord Shiva or Ganesh are mythological and therefore, superior to the human being. It was not easy playing such characters using only the human facial expressions and features and that is the reason why in the early periods,   different shapes and symbols were used as facial painting or body painting by the dancers to emphasize the characteristics of the different mythological characters .The practise of covering the face and the body with painting gradually gave birth to masks and bright coloured costumes in the dance performances to personify the God and Goddesses of the Hindu mythology.   à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The mask is made not to hide or to conceal, but to expose. As an instrument of metamorphoses, the mask permits man to lose his identity, and allows the gods to manifest themselves with an uncovered face. To mask oneself is to give life to a superior beingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? [11] Masks have been used for many centuries throughout the world for both ritual purposes and traditional theatres especially for the expressivity they add in a characterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s performance. Masks are often used in folk arts because they are a part of a costume that adorns the whole body and embodies a tradition important to the religious and/or social life of the community[12].   Unfortunately, I was not able to watch an actual Chhau dance-drama performance but I got to experience I quite similar style of dance during my trip in the island of Bali in Indonesia. As the community from Bali follow the Hindu religion, they have mythological stories resembling the Indian ones. The performance Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ve seen in Bali was a dance-drama style of performance as the characters were telling a story using dance, movements and gestures to act a story. The dance-drama constituted five acts telling a story using the good ones and the evil ones which is till now very simil ar to the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics. In the Balinese dance-drama, the characters were wearing masks as well but not all of them compared to the Chhau dancers of Purulia and Seraikela where it is compulsory for all the characters to wear masks. In the Balinese dance-drama, only the superior characters wore masks to express their power and their high status while the other characters were only covered with colourful full-face makeup. As a member of the audience, I can say that the masks helped a lot in creating an epic style of atmosphere on the stage and also in creating a connexion between the characters and the audience which is the reason why I think that masks are used by all the characters in the Chhau dance-drama. The performance that I have seen in Bali helped me a lot in understanding the purposes of the use of masks in the Chhau dance-drama as the Balinese dance is performed for religious and mythical purposes as well. Figure 2 shows an image of the characters in the Ba linese dance taken during a performance while Figure 3 shows the characters of the Chhau dance-drama.   The similarities in the masks used to portray superior beings can be noticed between both dance-drama forms. Even though both forms use masks, the masks are different in the way they are made and the way they look. [14]Figure 3: Masks in Chhau dance-drama of Eastern India The Chhau dance-drama enters in the category of poor theatre as all the materials, costumes, masks and accessories are made out of small expenses. . The Chhau masks are made with low priced ingredients such as river soil, newspapers, thin pieces of clothe, little bit of lime and paint. The facial masks are mostly manufactured by the artisans of the villages of the regions of West Bengal or Jharkhand as the Seraikella and the Purulia are the only styles of Chhau that uses masks as a compulsory part of their costumes in their performances. In Seraikela for example, the craft of mask making is an art that is handed down from father to son through many generations. The techniques and the fundamental nature of the Seraikela and Purulia Chhau dance-drama are based on the use of masks. Not only does it add beauty, color and life to the dance but it also evokes bhava (mood) and rasa (aesthetic sentiments) in the audience. Masks have a big role to play in the relationship between the performe r and the audience.   In Chhau, every performer has specific masks according to their characters. The Gods and Goddesses usually wear small pieces of decorative glittering materials in the facial masks accompanied with feathers and jewels while the evils or demons like the characters Ravana or Mahishasura wear grotesque masks.   The masks used in the Chhau dance-drama are also used to interpret expressions. As the Chhau dance-drama is a speechless form of performance, the expressions given by the masks becomes essential. As the use of masks eliminate any form of facial expressions, the Chhau dancers use head gestures and neck movements to express any sort of feelings or emotions. I think it is really interesting how the portrayal of a story can be done using only body language and masks instead of spoken language and facial expressions. From a theatrical point of view, it is not common and that is what forms the uniqueness of the Chhau dance-drama in the world.   The figures 4, 5 and 6 bellow illustrates example of Chhau masks used for different characters. [17]Figure 6 b. Costumes: Like the masks, the costumes are made out of inexpensive local materials. The costumes that the Chhau performers used at the time the dance-drama started being performed are not known so therefore, we cannot tell if the costumes they are using today have evolved or stayed the same since the early years of the performances. Today, the costumes that are used in the Chhau performances are from various bright colors and designs as it is a performance that is supposed to evoke joy during festive periods. The costumes for the lower part of the body differ for the performers playing the Gods and the ones playing the demons. The artists that play the Gods (Devas) characters usually wear pajamas of light colors like green, yellow or red or a mixture of colors to make the characters look more attractive and alive; whereas those playing the role of the demons (Asuras) wear loose trousers of darker and deeper colors such as black. The costumes for the upper part of the body are made out of vario us designs and are as attractive and colourful as the costumes of the lower part of the body. For the performers that play characters such as animals or birds, suitable types of masks and costumes are used to portray the specific types of animals or birds.   For example the character of Lord Shiva will be displayed by a tiger skin costume and his son Ganesh with a dhoti (Figure 7). The costumes also consist of many jewelleries and anything that look extravagant as those costumes are supposed to portray inexistent mythological characters. [18]Figure 7: Dhoti [19]Figure 8: Colourful costumes used in Chhau. 4 ) Music and staging: a. Staging: As the Chhau dance-drama is performed on festive occasions with a gathering together of a whole village community, there is no raised platform or dais being settled down for the performance. With the aim of keeping the traditionalism of the event, the Chhau dance-drama usually takes place in an open air ground where the spectators are divided into sections of women and men and sit in a circle surrounding the area where the Chhau is performed. The stage used for the Chhau performances is decorated in a colourful and joyful style to create a festive atmosphere among the villagers and is usually lit by torches or oil lamps that serve as lighting which once again are made to adhere to the traditionalism of the event. The staging of the Chhau is organized in a style that encourages people from any social or economical class to gather together and celebrate. The fact that the Chhau dance-drama remains a local and traditional event after so many years is fascinating to me as many other danc e or theatrical forms evolved to become more of an entertainment or money based purpose practise than a traditional one. It is very interesting how the Chhau is staged in a way to form a joyful atmosphere in a folk environment. b. Music: Like other ritual dances, the music accompaniment is a really important part for Chhau. The music style and the rhythm produced by the accompanying instruments are one of the key factors that characterize the uniqueness of the Chhau dance-drama. As the Chhau dancer is mute, the music and the lines sung by the orchestra are really important to introduce the performance. They create the right kind of mood and atmosphere for the scene to be enacted. The most important instrument accompanying the Chhau performances is the use of drum. The two main kinds of drums that are used in the Chhau performances are the Dhol ( Figure 9) and Dhamsa (Figure 10) which are played by local drummers of the area who also dance as they play. As for the tradition, the drummers themselves make the instruments and the tones used for the Chhau dance-drama based on the Hindustani Ragas wish is a Hindustani classical music concept. Ragas have a particular scale and specific melodic movements; their sound should bring delight and be pleasing to the ear[20]. Reed pipes such as Shehnai (Figure 11) are also used by the orchestra along with the drums. The drum beats are important in the Chhau performances because they are used in the beginning of the dance-drama as an invocation to Lord Ganesha sung by a singer from the orchestra. As soon as the invocation to lord Ganesha is over, the drummers and musicians walk in to create an environment prior to the dance before the Lord Ganesha makes his entry followed by the other characters. [22]Dhamsa [23]Figure 11: Shehnai 5) Performers and techniques: Even though the Chhau dance-drama is a folk form of dance, it also includes some elements from the classical form of dance of India like the navarasas. The navaras are basically nine emotions that are used in the Indian classical dances and dramas to make both the dancers/actors and the audience appreciate the meaning of the lyrics and the movements that are being portrayed by. The nine rasas goes as follows: 1) hasya (happiness), 2) krodha (anger), 3) bhibasta (disgust), 4) bhayanaka (fear), 5) shoka (sorrow), 6) veera (courage), 7) karuna (compassion), 8) adbhuta (wonder) and 9) shanta (serenity).[24] These nine emotions have been mentioned in Nathya Shastra and all dance and theatrical forms in India use these emotions extensively. As there are no spoken dialogues in most of the Indian dances including the Chhau, the navarasas are usually portrayed by using the eyes, the face, the muscles and the body shifts as a whole. In the case of Purulia and Sereikela Chhau, the movements of the eyes and the face are not possible as it is compulsory for all the characters to wear masks so the focus is on the body movements more than anything else to portray the nine different rasas. Since the Chhau dance-drama evolved from martial arts, the movements are very specific and important. The mask movements usually show anger while the shoulder and chest movements show joy, depression or courage depending on the way the dancer portrays it. The movements of the lower part of the body of the Chhau dancers are very quick and strong while the upper part of the body barely moves and the head rests in a slanted position. Jumping in the air is a movement that is often used in the Chhau performances because they serve as a gesture of at tack in war scenes between the good ones and the evil ones. The kind of jump seen in the Chhau performances is known as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"ulfaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ which is an indicator of the physical power and acrobatic skills of the performers. As we can see, the body language plays an essential role in the folk dance-drama Chhau.   In relation to the theory of knowledge, Chhau is very interesting in the way that it uses body language as a way to communicate with people. 6) Interview with Chhau master Chandi Mahato: Chhau dance-drama is a very rare and not commonly known form of folk art. Published books and web sources are not enough to properly study this art form in depth and therefore, I thought that an interview with an actual Chhau dance master would be ideal and effective to pursuit my exploration on the topic. As I live in Bangalore, a city in the state of Karnataka in the south part of India, a face to face interview was not possible so I sort this problem out by having a telephonic interview with the Chhau master Chandi Mahato. Chandi Mahato is a middle aged Chhau master residing in the remote village named Baghmundi in the Purulia district of West Bengal. He comes from a long lineage of Chhau dancers and teachers and has trained a lot of modern Chhau dancers including his son Lalit Mahato. An otherwise almost illiterate person, Chandi Mahato has learned a lot from his experience with Chhau dancing and at 67 years old, Mahato has performed in all major cities in India several times. Ma hato is a farmer for most part of the year but he also engages himself in training theatre troupes in India working with the methods propounded by Jerzy Grotowsky. After asking Mahato nine questions about his experience with Chhau and the Chhau art in general, I felt more enlightened about the Chhau dance-drama form. The answers I got from Mahato are very interesting (See Appendix 1). Like most of the Chhau practitioners, Mahato learned Chaau from his father Gurupada Mahato who also learned it from his father and Mahato also taught it to his son Lalit Mahato which confirms that the Chhau is a tradition transmitted from father to son through many generations. Chhau is usually learned form a young age because when one grows older, the flexibility of the body becomes weaker. Mahatoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s training techniques are very specific and challenging because dancing and acting using acrobatics is certainly not easy. Chandi Mahato persisted on the fact that the specific training is e ssential for Chhau practitioners and that consequences such as injuries of the performer or misinterpretation of the character could follow after a bad training. Drama is incorporated in the Chhau by the acting of a story without the use of any spoken language but instead body language. Mahato says that he uses a lot of typical exaggerated actions, movements, and gaits accompanied by music and rhythms which are easily recognised by the audience to carry the story forward. The Chhau master Mahato agrees on the fact that Chhau dance-drama as a folk art is very important to their community and cultural identity. Most of the people from those villages are farmers living in poor conditions. Therefore, they stick to this art form to bring joy and colors to their daily routines and they also use it as a way to express their emotions either the positive or the negative ones in a creative way. Chhau is also very important to their community because it is used to convey eternal moral messages . They use mythological stories to convey these moral messages for goal to educate people from those villages. Mahato is therefore stating that Chhau as a folk art is important to the Indian culture and is very significant as well. 7) Conclusion: After an in-depth study of the elements and origins of the Chhau dance-drama, it is therefore evident that this folk art is based on traditional and cultural elements. Chhau is an integral part of the culture heritage of India and ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s an indigenous dance form created with a typical Indian psyche which is deeply rooted in the scriptures that are followed by all major Indian dance and dramatic forms. The Chhau is an art that is not only used for festive purposes but also as a way of communication with the community to convey certain messages using mythological stories. The Chhau is mostly performed for an audience that is typically Indian including sons and daughters of Indian soil, brought up with typical Indian values. As explained in the film by Vikrant Kishore à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Dancing for themselvesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?, the states where the Chhau originated from are states in where poverty is a big problem and that is one of the reasons the residents of those states are ve ry attached to the Chhau and work hard on preserving it. Lalit Mahato who is the son of the Chhau master Chandi Mahato features in the film à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Dancing for themselvesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? and explains through the movie how important Chhau is for him and his culture. Lalit Mahato said Whatever it takes Ill teach my son Chhau Dance, no matter if Ive to just eat boiled rice; this quote shows the importance of Chhau as a cultural aspect for the lives of those villagers. The Chhau dancers do not practise this art only to entertain an audience but they also use it as a creative way to express their feelings and emotions. It is incredible how the different states of India Including the ones practising the Chhau dance-drama preserved their cultures intact. What we also have to take into consideration is the fact that those areas have not yet been touched by the fast movement of modernization. What would happen once modernization touch those areas? Will it affects their culture? Will they still perform the Chhau dance-drama as it is performed today and would it still be as significant for their culture? Those are questions that one should have in mind. I personally hope that those states donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t lose their culture because I think that the Chhau dance-drama is a unique and fantastic form of folk art that should be preserved the way it is. 8) Bibliography: Interview: 1) Mahato, Chandi   Chhau dance-drama. Telephone interview translated by Tamojit Ray. 24 Feb. 2010. Published work: 2) Devi., Ragini. Dance dialects of India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990. Print. 3) Gajrani, S. History, Religion and Culture of India. Vol. 4. Dehli: Isha, 2004. Print. 4) Schechner, Richard. Between Theater and Anthropology. New York: University of Pennsylvania, 1985. Print. Video: 5) Chhau Dance Performances : The Ramayana:Love and Valour in Indias Great Epic. Google Video. Web. 09 Dec 2009. 6) Chhau dance promo. Youtube. Web. 05 Dec. 2009. 7) DANCING FOR THEMSELVES A film by Vikrant Kishore. Dir. Vikrant Kishore. Youtube. 16 May 2007. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. Web Sources: 8) Chhau dance. Orissa Government Portal. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. 9) Chhau , Indian Folk Dance. Indianetzone. Web. 10 Dec. 2009. 10) Chhau. Web. 10 Dec. 2009. 11) Courtney, David. FOLK DANCES. Chandrakantha. Web. 09 Dec. 2009. 12) Courtney, David. Natya Shastra. Chandrakantha. Web. 10 Dec. 2009. 13) Folk Dances of India. Iloveindia. Web. 09 Dec. 2009. 14) Folk Dances of India. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. 15) Kamat, K.L. The Chhau dance. Kamat. 08 Sept. 2001. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. 16) Masks in Serikella Chhau Dance. Acharyaseraikellachhau. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. 17) Origin of Indian Folk Dances. Indianetzone. Web. 10 Dec. 2009. 18) Seraikella Chhau: An Introduction. Acharyaseraikellachhau. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. 19) Ponmelil, V.A. India Introduction to folk dances. Web. 09 Dec.2009. 20) West Bengal Chhau. Indialine. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. 9) Appendix 1: Telephonic Interview with Chhau Master Chandi Mahato Transcript: 1. How did you learn Chhau dance? Is the practice passed through generations? Ans: Yes. I learnt dancing from my father. His name was Gurupada Mahato. He was a well known Chhau master in his time. He learnt it from his father. It is a tradition with us. I have taught my son Lalit from a very early age. He is now performing all over India and sometimes abroad too. 2. Is there specific training necessary to perform the Chhau? Ans: Definitely. First of all, we need to know how to balance ourselves properly on our backbone. There are a lot of movements involved in Chhau dancing. We need to train ourselves on that. Chhau is a vigorous, manly dance form, which depends heavily on acrobatics. If we do not train on that, we will not be able to perform properly and end up injuring ourselves permanently. Chhau has typical style of movements and gaits à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" those need to be learnt as well. For instance, in Kirat Arjun, a traditional play where Lord Shiva confronts Arjun, the third Pandava, while hunting, there is a character of a wild boar which both want to hunt down. The wild boar has a very typical, traditional way of moving on the stage, If one does not receive training on that, the character will not be portrayed properly. Then, again, depending on the play, there is a distinct difference between portraying a male or a female character. One definitely needs to learn that. In addition, we have to p erform our dance according to typical rhythm patterns. So, a lot of vigorous training is necessary to become a Chhau performer and the training starts quite early in life because as one grows older, the flexibility of the limbs becomes weaker. 3. How do you act stories without using any spoken language? Ans: You have asked a very interesting question (laughs). As with most other dance forms in India, we use a lot of gestures and postures which typically convey a meaning. We also use a lot of typical movement and gaits while performing which carries the story forward. We also use animated and exaggerated actions which are easily recognised. Using all these, Chhau, over the ages has developed a language of its own and we try to use it as effectively as possible. You should also keep in mind that we use music and rhythms to accompany us. 4. To what extent is the Chhau dance-drama important to your community as a folk art? Ans: It is extremely important as Chhau dance represents the cultural identity of our community. The geographical area that we live in is very rough. We have to live a very vigorous lifestyle here. We go to the jungles and cut trees in order to get fuel. The rivers in our area are very shallow and are mostly rain fed. So all the year round we face acute shortage of water. It becomes extremely hot and dry in summers and the winter is also very tough. Most of the people in our community have very little or no land to cultivate of their own. We most often have to earn our food by ploughing other peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s land. Moreover, living in close proximity to the forests, we have to save ourselves from wild animals like elephants. So you can well understand that we live in extreme poverty and have to live a tough life. All of that is reflected in our dance. We try to express all our miseries, happiness, sorrows and agonies through our dance. We may adopt the mythical stories to do so. But nevertheless, those mythical characters become one of us while portraying them during our performances. We are normally farmers when we are not dancing. The harvest season in our area is usually around the springtime. That is when we have our festivals and the landed gentry, after making profits from the fresh harvest, are in a better position to indulge in cultural activities. So they organise night-long Chhau competitions all around the region. It gives us opportunity to showcase our talents to people and earn some extra money. The spring, in our region comes with a lot of colours à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" that is represented in our art through the colourful masks and costumes. 5. To what extent is it important to you? Ans: I just told you à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" it is very important. I can express myself in a creative way through the medium of dance. I am able to showcase my talents as a dancer. This gives me recognition within our region. After I have performed well in a competition, people immediately recognise me wherever I go in the area and treat me with an amount of respect. I have gained more respectability from the time I have become a master. I train up the younger generation who are interested in becoming performers. They perform my compositions on stage. Beside the creative satisfaction, I also earn respect from people as the leader of the team. In the more recent times, Chhau has given me the opportunity to travel to different parts of the country to perform. I feel lucky to have been able to represent our art to the people of this vast country. I have also performed in Europe and USA. I feel proud to be a part of the diverse culture that my country has. I am glad that I could present Chhau , which is a folk art form in the remote corners of India, in front of the audience abroad à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" most of whom were non Indians and had never experienced what Chhau is. 6. How do the Chhau performances affect your community with their mythological stories? Ans: We try to convey some eternal moral messages through our performances, like the triumph of good over evil. We use the mythological stories as allegories to convey these messages. The reason for doing that is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" most of the rural people who watch our performances relate immediately to the mythological stories taken from Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas as they are familiar with these stories from their childhood. And as I have told you earlier, during a performance, the characters we depict through our stories do not remain mere gods and goddesses à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" they become mortals just like us who suffer pains and agonies just like we do. So conveying the message becomes easier for us. But I must also tell you that all these thoughts are the results of talking to educated people from the cities. Otherwise, when we perform, most of us are not conscious of these effects. 7. Do you think Chhau as a form has been able to retain its traditional values through all these years that it has existed? Ans: That is not totally possible.With time certain ways of presentation have changed owing to various factors. During the time of our ancestors, the length of a single play was much longer. You must understand that Chhau was the only form of entertainment in those days in this remote area. Nowadays, we have to compete with cinema and television. People do not want to sit through the lengthy performances. They get bored. So we have had to shorten the performance time. Also, with the advent of the electronic media, the tastes of our audience have become more commercialised. They want more lilt in the presentations and want to see us dance with the popular music they hear on radio and television. We have been forced to incorporate some of those elements in our performances for sheer survival. However, in essence we do retain the traditional format and have not changed much in terms of look and feel. 8. What is the significance of Chhau as an art form in your point of view? Ans: India is vast country with a lot of cultural diversities. Each region has its own unique form to contribute to this diversity. When we bring these diversities together, only then do we realise how beautiful our country is and how culturally rich we are. We, as Indians, represent an age old heritage to the entire world. And Chhau is an integral part of this rich heritage. We à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the Chhau performers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" feel that it is of utmost importance to keep this tradition moving. Nowhere in our country would you find a dance form like Chhau which is folk-like in appearance but has an intrinsic classical nature. I call it folk-like because of the masks and costumes we use. And I also call it classical because, with time, we have been able to develop a language for the form using very specific gestures, postures and movement. It is a unique form practised by a handful of people in a remote corner of our country. But if you look around, you will not find too many dance-theatre forms like Chhau all over the world. 9. What makes the Chhau unique among other similar forms of dance in India? Ans: As I told you a little while ago that Chhau is a dance form which has over the ages developed a language of its own. When you compare it with other similar types of dance, you will find that no other Indian dance forms use the mask to completely cover the face of the performer. So the performer, in those forms, has the advantage of using their facial expressions along with the other attributes to convey an emotion. However, when it comes to Chhau, we are standing at a disadvantage. Our facial expression, due to the masks, is fixed and cannot be changed throughout all the emotions depicted in the characters we present. So we have to use different types of gestures, postures and gaits to express them. That is the most unique thing about Chhau. pg. 2 [1] Courtney, David. Folk Dances of India. David and Chandrakantha Courtneys Homepage-Indian Musicians. Web. 05 Dec. 2009. [2] Courtney, David. Natya Shastra (Natyashatra or Natyasastra) Ancient Indian Text on Stagecraft. Music of India. Web. 05 Dec. 2009. [3] Folk Dances of Eastern India. Web. 05 Dec. 2009. [4] INDIA MAP. Map. INDIA MAP POLITICAL, TRAVEL MAP, MAPS OF INDIAN STATES. Indianomy. Web. 09 Dec. 2009. [5] Chhau. Orissa Government Portal. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. [6] Chaitra is the last month of the year in the Hindu calendar and is also associated with the spring season which is an auspicious time. [7] The Mahabharata is a book written by the poet Vyasa. It is the epic tale of a quarrel between the Pandavas and the Kauravas that culminated in a fight. INDIAN EPICS. THE RAMAYANA , THE MAHABHARATA EPICS OF INDIA. Web. 17 Dec. 2009. [8] Ramayana Sanskrit epic by Valmiki, based on the story of Rama, son of King Dasharatha of Ayodhya. The epic is divided into seven episodes or parts. INDIAN EPICS. THE RAMAYANA , THE MAHABHARATA EPICS OF INDIA. Web. 17 Dec. 2009. [9] Deva à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Dictionary definition of deva. Encyclopedia Online Dictionary. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. [10] Asura -. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 17 Dec. 2009. [11] Jacques Brunet. The excerpt is taken from an article originally edited by Cherif Khaznadar and published by Maison de la Culture de Rennes, France. It was reprinted in The Drama Review (Winter 1982), p.68. [12] Mask. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. [13]   Masks in the Balinese style of dance-drama., Bali, Indonesia. Personal photograph by author. Dec. 2009. [14]   Chhau , Indian Folk Dance. Indianetzone. Web. 09 Jan. 2010. [15]   Chhau , Indian Folk Dance. Indianetzone. Web. 09 Jan. 2010. [16]   Masks in Serikella Chhau Dance. Acharyaseraikellachhau. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. [17] Masks in Serikella Chhau Dance. Acharyaseraikellachhau. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. [18] Dhoti. Tradeindia. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. [19] Picturesindia. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. [20] Sahani, Girish. Concept of Raga in Hindustani Classical Music. 09 Dec. 2006. Web. [21] Instrumantra. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. [22] Web. 15 Dec. 2009. [23] Courtney, David. Shehnai. Chandrakantha. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. [24] Matu, Sangeeta Kaul. The origins of Indian Dance: The Natya Shastra. Classical Indian Dance: Origins, Elements, Slokas Links. 26 Aug. 1999. Web. 19 Dec. 2009.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Justice What’s the Right Thing to Do - 1454 Words

Defining justice involves an in depth look at what we as individuals and a collective society value. Michael Sandel’s book Justice: What’s the right thing to do? does not attempt to answer these questions for us but rather implores us to look inside ourselves for the answers. This is accomplished by challenging the reader with cases, some hypothetical, and some real, in which the moral basis can be debated from different angles. We all have views on the death penalty, war, taxes, and religion but few of us take the time to reflect on the logical basis for these values. The first four chapters are filled with many cases that cause the reader to rethink these values or at least the reasoning behind them. I was especially intrigued by the†¦show more content†¦267). This would result in more people interacting with each other and hopefully bring about more mutual understanding and civil discourse. The chances of this vision coming to life might be small but it is intriguing none the less. Throughout the book Sandel does an impressive job of explaining difficult scenarios and the way different philosophies would view them. I think that Sandel’s ability to argue the same point from different sides, without trying to bias the reader is the main strength of this book. He does not put the philosophers or subjects up on a pedestal but just argues the facts based on what theory is being discussed. For i nstance the fact that a utilitarian views taxes much differently then a libertarian does not mean one is better just that â€Å"each of these ideals suggests a different way of thinking about justice† (Sandel, 2009, p.19). The one glaring exception to his unbiased style is in chapter 10 when he seems to let his favorable views of the President seep into his writing. The first half of the chapter reads like a White House press release and does little to advance the concepts of the book. 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