Tuesday, November 26, 2019
QuÃ © informaciÃ ³n tienen en control migratorio de USA Mediante el sistema TECS, los oficiales en los controles migratoriosÃ tienen acceso a una gran informaciÃ ³n sobre los extranjeros que desean ingresar a Estados Unidos.Ã Pero, Ã ¿quÃ © tipo de informaciÃ ³n contiene TECS? Ã ¿QuÃ © problemas pueden surgir?Ã Ã ¿QuÃ © es el sistema TECS de informaciÃ ³n en control migratoriode USA? TECS es una plataforma informtica gestionada por la PolicÃ a de Control de Fronteras (CBP, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s), que es parte del Departamento de Seguridad Internet (DHS, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s). En realidad es un sistema de sistemas donde diversas agencias ingresan informaciÃ ³n para que los oficiales de la CBP puedan verificarla respecto a cada extranjero que quiere internarse en el paÃ s. Entre las agencias que suministran informaciÃ ³n a destacan: El FBILas embajadas y consulados americanosLas cortes de JusticiaEl IRS, que es la agencia tributaria de Estados UnidosLas policÃ as locales y estatales. Ã ¿QuÃ © sistemas operan dentro de TECS y cÃ ³mo afectan en la prctica a los viajeros? US-VISIT. Al llegar a la aduana americana, se le toma una foto y las huellas dactilares a la mayorÃ a de los extranjeros. Este sistema permite compararlas con las dadas en el momento de solicitar la visa en consulado o embajada. AsÃ , se impide que una persona utilice el pasaporte de otra para intentar ingresar a Estados Unidos. TambiÃ ©n sirve para evitar que los extranjeros con dos pasaportes intenten utilizar uno de ellos cuando se les ha denegado la visa americana con el otro. Por ejemplo, un venezolano que tambiÃ ©n es espaÃ ±ol. Si solicitÃ ³ el visado como venezolano y la solicitud le fue rechazada, luego no puede pretender ingresar con el espaÃ ±ol, aprovechando que a los ciudadanos de EspaÃ ±a no se les pide visa para visitas de turismo. Con US-VISIT el oficial de aduanas se da cuenta de que est ante una persona con la visa denegada y posiblemente le impida internarse en el paÃ s. APIS. Es el sistema por el que las aerolÃ neas comunican a las autoridades americanas que un extranjero ha comprado un boleto de aviÃ ³n y pretende viajar hacia Estados Unidos. Entre la informaciÃ ³n que transmiten se encuentra: nombre, apellidos, fecha de nacimiento, gÃ ©nero y lugar de expediciÃ ³n del pasaporte. Las aerolÃ neas tambiÃ ©n colaboran comunicando cuando un extranjero embarca en uno de sus aviones cuando sale de Estados Unidos, con lo que la CBP puede saber inmediatamente si ha excedido la estancia autorizada. Recuerda que si no sales a tiempo, asÃ sea por unas pocas horas, la visa se cancela y los del Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visas ya no pueden disfrutar de ese privilegio. Adems, si la estancia sin permiso fue superior a seis meses, aplica el castigo o penalidad de los 3 o de los 10 aÃ ±os. IAFIS. Busca en una gran base de datos del huellas dactilares del FBI, al que previamente autoridades policiales locales y estatales han enviado informaciÃ ³n. AsÃ se puede saber prcticamente al momento si el extranjero que desea entrar en Estados Unidos tiene un rÃ ©cord criminal y proceder a su detenciÃ ³n o expulsiÃ ³n. En la actualidad IAFIS alberga ms de 55 millones de expedientes, siendo la mayor base de datos del mundo de esta naturaleza. Otros sistemas a destacar dentro de TECS son IDENT y ENFORCE. Adems, el oficial de la CBP puede incorporar informaciÃ ³n nueva como su impresiÃ ³n sobre el extranjero o el resultado de una pequeÃ ±a conversaciÃ ³n: a quÃ © viene, por cunto tiempo, dÃ ³nde se va a alojar, etc. Ã ¿QuÃ © sucede cuando el oficial de la CBP tiene acceso a la informaciÃ ³n TECS? En la mayorÃ a de los casos tramitar muy rpidamente la autorizaciÃ ³n de la entrada del extranjero. En la actualidad ms de 900,000 personas pasan a diario por las fronteras americanas. En una media de 32,000 casos diarios ser necesario una segunda inspecciÃ ³n. De ellos, se calcula que a unos 15 se acceder a la informaciÃ ³n de sus aparatos electrÃ ³nicos, como telÃ ©fonos, computadoras, cmaras de fotos, tabletas, etc. Son casos muy extraordinarios y generalmente responde a asuntos relacionados con la seguridad nacional, terrorismo o delitos particularmente horrendos como la pornografÃ a infantil o narcotrfico. La gran mayorÃ a de las personas que deben pasar a una inspecciÃ ³n secundaria no tendrn ningÃ ºn problema y se les permitir entrar tras un pequeÃ ±o retraso para comprobaciÃ ³n de datos. Si bien es posible que en determinados casos a un extranjero se le autorice el ingreso pero se le de una citaciÃ ³n para presentarse ante un juez de inmigraciÃ ³n. Esto sÃ ³lo pasa si asÃ lo decide el oficial de inmigraciÃ ³n (no es un derecho del extranjero) y como requisito previo es necesario que tenga al menos una visa en vigor. Es decir, no aplica a las personas autorizadas a viajar sin visa, segÃ ºn el Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visados, que no van a ser enviadas a un juez si surgen problemas. Y finalmente a un total aproximado de 210,000 personas al aÃ ±o se les prohibe la entrada y son devueltas al lugar donde originÃ ³ su viaje. En estos casos dos situaciones pueden ocurrir: Que el oficial de inmigraciÃ ³n permita una retirada de la peticiÃ ³n de entrar, que es lo ms ventajoso.Que se ordene una expulsiÃ ³n inmediata, con lo que el afectado tiene prohibido el regreso a a EEUU por cinco aÃ ±os. Adems, su visa actual se ha cancelado. Y si se trata de una persona del Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visas ya no podr viajar con la ESTA y necesitar solicitar previamente a viajar una visa en el consulado. Hay que tener muy en cuenta que para que una persona extrajera pueda ingresar a Estados Unidos en todo momento tiene que reunir dos condiciones: ser elegible y ser inadmisible. Y es que tener una visa vigente o ser de un paÃ s que permite viajar sin visa no es suficiente. Estas son 22 causas que convierten a una persona en inadmisible y 20 que la convierten en inelegible. Estas razones tienes consecuencias en los consulados a la hora de aprobar una visa o su renovaciÃ ³n y tambiÃ ©n en los controles migratorios de Estados Unidos. Ã ¿QuÃ © hacer si siempre te envÃ an a inspecciÃ ³n secundaria, te hacen perder vuelos de enlace, crees que hay informaciÃ ³n errÃ ³nea sobre ti en el sistema? El DHS tiene un sistema para poder comunicar esas quejas e intentar subsanar posibles errores. Lo que hay que entender es que los extranjeros no tienen un derecho a entrar en Estados Unidos, aunque tengan visa en vigor. Y, por lo tanto, no hay ninguna violaciÃ ³n de un derecho que no existe. No se puede demandar, ya que no hay derecho que exigir. SÃ se puede intentar arreglar errores o dejar pasar el tiempo en caso de castigos por determinadas acciones. A tener en cuenta Es posible que una persona que nunca haya tenido ningÃ ºn problema para ingresar, un dÃ a se encuentre con que es parada y no se le permite. Eso puede deberse a que ciertos elementos pueden ser interpretados y analizados de manera distinta, segÃ ºn el oficial de inmigraciÃ ³n que toque, por ejemplo, Ã ¿cÃ ³mo se determina si una persona tiene intenciÃ ³n de quedarse dentro de EEUU? Un agente puede verlo de una manera y otro de otra. Pero tambiÃ ©n es posible que simplemente se haya introducido en TECS un dato que hasta ese momento no figuraba. Puede ser reciente o viejo. Y una vez que le consta al oficial de la CBP determinadas actividades decide prohibir la entrada. Por otro lado, la frontera terrestre, especialmente con MÃ ©xico- tambiÃ ©n se protege con aparatos tecnolÃ ³gicos de Ã ºltima generaciÃ ³n, aÃ ºn sin la construcciÃ ³n del muro propuesto por el presidente Trump. Finalmente, tener presente que no sÃ ³lo la CBP tiene acceso a TECS sino ms agencias del gobierno estadounidense como NCIC y NLETS, e incluso se le permite al CPIC que es de Canad. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Four Sounds of the Spelling OU The Four Sounds of the Spelling OU The Four Sounds of the Spelling OU By Maeve Maddox In response to the post on all a rouse, Paul Wilkins wrote I am wondering why people are misusing rouse to mean ruse. What other spellings of common words are there that would cause them to think that rouse is pronounced in the same was as ruse? The only only one that comes to mind is the -use word ending for words such as hypotenuse. Actually, there are several English words in which the spelling ou represents the /oo/ sound: you, your, tour, crouton, group, coup The reference on which I most rely for discussing the sounds and spelling of English is Romalda Spaldings The Writing Road to Reading. Spalding based the teaching guidelines in her book on the work of Samuel Orton and his student Anne Gillingham. Both the Spalding Method and the Orton-Gillingham Method organize the sounds and symbols of English into 46 sounds (phonemes) and 70 written symbols (phonograms). In the Spalding method phonograms that represent more than one sound are presented in order of frequency. That is, if a letter or letter combination can represent more than one sound, the first sound is the most common, the second less common, and so on. When encountering an unfamiliar word, the beginning reader is taught to try the first sound first. If that doesnt produce a recognizable word, then the second sound is to be tried. In Spalding the four sounds of the phonogram ou are presented in this order: 1. /ow/ as in found about, house, shout, mouse, count, loud, sound, hound 2. long o as in four pour, course, court, gourd, mourn, fourth 3. /oo/ as in you your, tour, crouton, group, coup 4. /uh/ as in country cousin, double As one might expect, American pronunciation has undergone changes since Orton and his students did their research back in the 1920s and 1930s. Television has spread many pronunciations and words that were once considered regional rather than standard. For example, the word tour [tÃÅ r] is often heard pronounced to rhyme with chore. In answer to the readers question, the bloggers who spell the word ruse with the phonogram ou have never seen the word in print. They are associating the spelling ou with its third sound and not its most common sound. As the writing population continues to read less, many conventional spellings will be lost. They will be replaced by forms that look right to writers who are not used to seeing them in print. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:36 Adjectives Describing LightWhat is Dative Case?Affect vs. Effect
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Long-term financing of companies - Essay Example If a company that has already undergone an IPO needs to raise substantial capital again and it chooses to issue new equity in order to finance it, this is called seasoned equity offering (Butler, Grullon & Wetson 2005). Seasoned equity offerings come in different variations as regards the terms of the offer such as offering the stocks at investors-at-large or through a rights offerings. Under the rights offering, the company can issue rights to the purchasing the new shares to recipient investors on a proportionate basis (Weller 1962). These rights can either be sold or utilised depending on the recipient investors (Weller 1962). In 2008, Tesco Plc has seasoned equity offering that amounted to 130 million pounds; this is consist of 3 million pounds in issue capital, and 127 million pounds in share premium (Tesco Plc 2009). According to Tesco Plc, part of this seasoned equity offering is to issue shares as stock options are exercised. The rest of it is used for additional financing to the company. On the other hand, Marks & Spencer has issued 0.5 million pounds in equity (Marks & Spencer 2009). In contrast to Tesco Plc, this issue of shares by Marks & Spencer is due to exercise of options. However, seasoned equity offerings are used by the two companies in raising funds to finance their operations. One major advantage of this source of long-term funding is the huge amount of capital that large companies such as Tesco and Marks & Spencer have access in the form of the stock market. As regards the size of the capital raised, seasoned offerings in the stock market really provide huge advantages to these companie s. Seasoned equity offerings also have some shortcomings. For one, after an SEO, it is very usual that the stock price of the company gets lower because of the increase in price. There is a period of time before the price of the stocks will incorporate the information about the company, and this
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Executive Remuneration - Essay Example These debates on the directorÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation has been seen in most countries more notably the Royal Bank case involving Stephen Hester and this has led to most companies developing their own measures and procedures to be followed in the remuneration of executives to avoid much pressure from the government and the public interest. The perception that Hester received much remuneration package while the shareholders were rewarded lowly in terms of their performance contribution to the company has raised much debate. According to Lee (2002), the level of executiveÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation has continued to raise much heat to the public. Therefore the much interest from the public, state regulators, and the media have seen most companies taking more time and paying a lot of attention to investigate, documenting and announcing executive remuneration. In order to cool down the much heated debate, public limited companies should implement the following practices and legal procedures. Coming Up With A Compensation Committee Once a company has a specialized committee that knows her functions is a better way to ensure that the committee has time and devotion to attend matters related to the executive compensation. The compensation committee usually operates within certain regulated legal authority, and resolution that is written by the full board of directors. The legal restrictions are put in place to avoid much conflict between the board and the executive staff over the amount of compensation.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Disney vs. Imane Boudlal Essay Disneyland vs. Imane Boudlal HISTORY Disneyland is very large 160 acre amusement park located in Anaheim CA. Disneyland was created by Walt Disney on July 17, 1955, Walt Disney wanted to create a magical place where parents with children could go to the same place and have just as much fun as their children. Walt Disney had the vision that he wanted Disneyland to be like a fantasy land where dreams could come to life. Disneyland is a 17. 5 million dollar magic kingdom. Even though the park was a very expensive project, Ã¢â¬Å"I could never convince the financiers that Disneyland was feasible, because dreams offer too little collateralÃ¢â¬ said Walt Disney. Since Disney was a very expensive project, Walt Disney had some support from his own television show on ABC; it was called Walt DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Disneyland. The TV series offered sneak peeks about the future Disneyland project before it was even finished. It took a full year of hard work to finish the project. Disneyland is well-known for having a strict employee dress code called Ã¢â¬Å"the Disney lookÃ¢â¬ . This dress code was introduced to new employees in 1955 prior to the amusement park opening. Disneyland also calls their employees Ã¢â¬Å"cast membersÃ¢â¬ in order to keep the magical theme going. The Disney look has changed over time, but yet also remained true to offering wholesome family entertainment in one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top vacation destination. To work at Disneyland, the potential cast member must first agree and understand the policy prior to being hired.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
For many political theorists and thinkers, the ideas of labor and property are central to the evolution of governments or states, and henceforth, very important aspects of human life. For some writers, the development of property is a direct result of labor, and government is set up to ensure the property rights of those who own property. Some view property and labor fundamentally or naturally connected aspects of human life, while others see it as merely a social convention. Each thinker also has different opinions about how property is acquired, as well as what the limits to property acquisition are. While one writer may provide the most fair account of property, another may provide a more feasible account of property acquisition and its limits. This essay will attempt to compare and contrast the beliefs of John Locke and Karl Marx on the ideas of labor and property with their connections to the aspects of the human condition, as well as determine who holds the most feasible or fai r account of property. To begin, Locke believes that property is not a "thing", rather, it is a relationship between an individual and an item. Property is a natural condition in John Locke’s state of nature, meaning it was present since the beginning. "Thus labor, in the beginning, gave a right of property, wherever anyone was pleased to employ it upon what was common, which remained a long while the far greater part, and is yet more than mankind makes use of." (Locke, 27). In order for property rights to exist, they must be recognized by other individuals through the act of mixing physical labor with nature. The most fundamental and natural forms of the property of man are "The labor of his body, and the work of his hands…" (Locke, 19.) These fundamental properties, according to Locke, cannot be stripped from any man "…nor could without injury take from him." (Locke, 21). By mixing nature with this fundamental form of property, or labo r, man can appropriate property to himself. "His labor hath taken it out of the hands of nature, where it was common, and belonged equally to all her children, and hath hereby appropriated it to himself" (Locke, 20). Here, Locke explains that by mixing one’s physical labor with, for example, an apple from a tree, one removes the apple from the common cache ... ...er, which are understood as goods or property. To Marx, property is not a natural or fundamental aspect of human existence. In a capitalist economy, property comes about through certain social relations between the capitalist and laborer. It is a social convention to Marx, and is not natural at all, in fact one of Marx’s main movements into communism abolishes all property rights. One reason Marx would like to move from our current governments into communism is because of the alienation of labor. Alienation of labor alienates the physical laborer from the object he creates. The capitalist owns the product that the laborer produces through the division of labor, and no individual worker will ever own what he creates in this system. Marx does not really delve on the evolution of property rights or property relations, he is more concerned with economic factors of production and markets. In Marx’s base superstructure model of a political economy, the forces of production (labor, technology) form the base of the political system. After the forces of production, come the relations of production, which are class inequality, property rights and the division of labor.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Architecture has produced works that was revered, respected and something that captured the awe of the people for years. It was the source of something beautiful and even artistic. It was because of architecture that the likes of the Parthenon, as well as the other majestic palaces and cathedrals and other structures Ã¢â¬â things that people have considered as artistic and beautiful Ã¢â¬â was created and later enthroned in the annals of what is beautiful and what is artistic. Architecture has endured for years, but the growth of the practice of architecture also made it possible for the creation of other disciplines from which what is beautiful and artistic would be derived from. One of the things that were always placed side by side with architecture today, when it comes to the consideration of art and beauty inside space and location, is installation art. Over the years, installation art has become widespread and gained popularity. But the spread of installation art has one serious repercussion Ã¢â¬â its act of intrusion in the realm of architecture, an act of intrusion that is not harmoniously creative but is sometimes destructive too. There maybe instances wherein the collaboration and fusion of architecture and installation art can produce something that exudes harmonized beauty and reflect certain artistic values and content. What captures the attention of professionals is how installation art appears to be more inclined in attacking the space and the features of architecture, either as part of its overall artistic outlook or just because this is a necessary characteristic for installation art to fully manifest itself. This has been an important point of argument since installation art has emerged. There are those who believe that the two disciplines exist in harmony together while there are those who believe otherwise. Because of this, the paper will try to discuss and analyse what the relationship is between installation art and architecture, how art invades architectural space, when and how art and architecture intersect and what will be the result of the collaboration of art and architecture. The Evolution of Installation Art Installation art, as the name implies, is all about a work of art that was installed in a particular place. It maybe a simple object or a collection of objects, that occupies very little space. It can be something Ã¢â¬â a sight or visual cue that can make the audience feel as if they were transformed in another place because of the broadness of the reach, physically, of the installation art that a whole new environment was created because of installation art. There are many different components that may make up a work of art considered as installation art (since anything that can be installed in a place can be a part of installation art). From video presentations to exhibited photographs, sculpture and other artworks, these all contribute to make installation art what it is and to help installation art achieve its goal, and that is to transform a particular place in such a way that what was achieved was the experience and sensory cues that the artist(s) wanted or anticipated in the creation of installation art. Installation art, like any other art styles, genres and movements have beginnings in different countries and many places around the world proved amenable to the growth, patronage and continued development of installation art (Childs, Storry, 1999, p. 273). Considered as a genre or art movement that is still under the contemporary art era, installation art was felt as early as the seventies. A very good example of some of the earliest installation art include the latrine turned fountain by Marcel Duchamp entitled Ã¢â¬Å"FountainÃ¢â¬ , a work of art that was controversial and sensational largely because of what it presented and the social taboos and conventions that it challenged during its release. Joining Duchamp as some of the earliest proponents of installation art includes Kurt Schwitters, as well as the Gutai group, an art group that was situated outside of the US and in Japan, and the American Allan Kaprow. These individuals are just some of the prominent individuals in installation art Ã¢â¬â browsing intensively through the history of installation art. Research would reveal several other individuals who participated in the establishment and growth of installation art around the world (Childs, Storry, 1999, p. 273). Kaprow was considered as one of the artists who helped guide the idea of installation art towards what it is today. He has postulated many different ideas that concretized the concept of installation art since its early years. KaprowÃ¢â¬â¢s idea about environmental art contributed towards the development of installation art as how it is known today. By the start of the last two decades of the 20th century, installation art was already known in many parts of the world, including European countries (Childs, Storry, 1999, p. 273). Ã¢â¬Å"The term installation art has been in common use since at least the mid-1980s and Ã¢â¬ËinstallationsÃ¢â¬â¢ have become familiar sights in British museums and galleries in the 1990s (Childs, Storry, p273). Ã¢â¬ Besides Kaprow, there is also the famous installation art pioneer, Ilya Kabakov, who was also instrumental in developing installation art. Together with Kaprow, Kabarov helped in bringing installation art closer to the people, as well as to the artists by using the academe and including installation art in what they teach in school so that students will understand installation art better and maybe even contribute to installation art in the future (Al-Qawasmi, De Velasco, 2006, p. 117). Ã¢â¬Å"Two of the key coiners of installation art are Allan Kaprow and Ilya Kabakov. Both artists not only made art installation but they also introduced the practice into academia (Al-Qawasmi, De Velasco, 2006, p. 117). Ã¢â¬ Kabakov and Kaprow and their role in the introduction of installation art in the consciousness of art students learning in the academe is instrumental in the growth of installation art, which , in one way brought installation art and architecture closer together. The idea behind the creation of the discipline that would be known as installation art lies on the belief of the artists that there are other ways that can be explored. The viewing experience of the people who are trying to appreciate art is something that the audience can experience, detect and maximize (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). The physical attributes of the place contributes in making the artistic exhibition what it was, therefore, bringing the artworks and the experience closer to the people and helping them identify with their selves better while being immersed in the art they are witnessing in installation art exhibits. Ã¢â¬Å"Installation art attempts to reduce the boundaries between the viewer and the viewed and bring the artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas to a situation where they can be communicated more directly (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). Ã¢â¬ From lifting from available materials, installation art experienced an important change when television and video recording was introduced. It allowed the artists more diversity in their works and allowed more ways and means for the artwork to be presented to the public. Because of this new technology, installation art was able to add a new dimension to itself. Today, video has been an integral part of installation art anywhere in the world. Artists, like Martin Firrell and Jenny Holzer, are some of the installation art specialists who are known to use the technologies, videos and digital presentation. Over time, the support for installation art, its ideas and the discipline, grew. Many entities like the Museum of Installation located in London, as well as the Mattress Factory in the United States, sounded their support for the growth of installation art as a separate and independent movement in the world of art. This is concretized by the growth of the artists immersed in this style. There are many installation art works to come out of England. One example is the work entitled Neon Rice Fields exhibited in 1993 by an artist from Vietnam who was already based in Great Britain named Vong Phaophanit (Childs, Storry, 1999, p. 273). This also signifies the relevance of the countries, too, that supported installation art. For example, the British prides itself with several artists, some of them are not even born in that country. However, because of the artistic atmosphere in the country, even foreign born artists are now based there because of how the country creates a local artistic community that is amenable for the art and the artists. Part of the development and evolution of installation art is the introduction of this particular art form in the academe. By being introduced to the academic world and being studied and used by professionals, it was a way of awarding installation art a sense of legitimacy in the art world, like giving it its rightful place in the world of art. And an important point in the discussion of the intersection of installation art and architecture can be seen in the discussion of installation art in the academe, although historians are not quite sure when this began (Al-Qawasmi, De Velasco, 2006, p. 117). Ã¢â¬Å"It is difficult to trace the exact history and point of departure for using installations in architectural education (Al-Qawasmi, De Velasco, 2006, p. 117). Ã¢â¬Å" Some observers believed that when installation art was introduced in the academe, it was placed inside the educational system for learning architecture, placing installation art as a part and not something greater than architecture. Notably, installation art was greatly embraced in the realm of architecture, even in the academic realm. Ã¢â¬Å"Installation practice in architecture schools is growing both in undergraduate and diploma studies as well as postgraduate research (Al-Qawasmi, De Velasco, 2006, p, 117). Ã¢â¬ Role of Installation Art Installation art is here because of a particular reason; one of the reasons is the role which artists believe installation art has. Often, it is the role of message-sending, addressing issues that can be as broad as socio-political issues or even personal issues; the focus is on the individual and the realization of the individual/audience after being exposed to the installation art (Al-Qawasmi, De Velasco, 2006, p. 117). Ã¢â¬Å"Some practice installation as urban interventions to question cultural or socio-political issues (Al-Qawasmi, De Velasco, 2006, p. 117). Ã¢â¬ Here is an example. If you would one day happen to see a sculpture of an image of a polar bear sitting under a very small pack of ice placed on the sidewalk, placed there by the artist, it may mean that the artist is trying to send a socio-cultural message that is environmental in nature (i. e. tackling the issue of global warming and how the work of art represents the effects and changes that will happen to the planet if global warming remains unchecked and unresolved, and that would include the loss of natural habitats of animals in the polar regions and the displacement of animals inside locales they are not known to thrive in the first place). Another good example is the work of British artist Michael Landy. Landy became more popular after his Breakdown installation art which he held at the C&A building located in London. He protested about consumerism through his art Ã¢â¬â composed of installation and performance art that saw Landy bringing in his possessions on sight and burning it in front of the audience (Walford, 2001). Installation Art: Rise and Recognition The emergence of installation art as a specific discipline in the world of art has gained notable rise and earned the recognition of the authorities in the field of art. Today, there are many reputable organizations, as well as award giving bodies, that acknowledge installation art and their significance. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"the Turner Prize shortlists have increasingly included such work (installation art) by British or British-based artists including Vong Phaophanit, Douglas Gordon and Rachel Whiteread (Childs, Storry, 1999, p. 273). Ã¢â¬ These award giving bodies and the recognition that they give to installation art and the artists of installation art, helped cement the place of installation art. It also helped the artists in the local and international community, contributing to the growth of installation art. This is important in the rise and recognition of installation art. How Installation Art Invades Architectural Space Architecture thrived because there were available spaces that were transformed through the use of construction and the implementation of design and creation policies and concepts exclusive to architecture. Because of that, architecture cannot be considered as creating physical outputs that are intrusive towards existing objects that occupied space to where they would encroach. Architecture did not encroach because the buildings were made atop a land previously featureless. If there were any buildings before architectural efforts were made, it was considered as an act of improvement for the previously placed structure, which is made by architecture. Regardless of how old the type of architecture would be, still, it is architecture. The case is different with installation art because installation art places itself inside the design of architecture Ã¢â¬â designs which did not accommodate such features, and sometimes, will not accommodate such features. And when this happens, installation art invades architectural space. For example, public parks where installation arts are in place can be considered as an act of destroying the concept of what is beautiful. This is because an alien thing was added to the park, a feature that was not planned to be there in the first place, ergo giving the people the chance to redefine what a beautiful park isÃ¢â¬â was it the one with the installation art or the one without it? Even if installation artists argue that installation art has aesthetic value, design is not a simple mathematics of putting one beautiful thing inside another beautiful thing and the automatic result is a beautiful and artistic thing. Sometimes, the combination of two separate, beautiful and artistic things may not be a harmonious endeavour. The characteristic of one of the two will be affected by how the other will minimize, alter or damage the original state of the half of the two, making the union sometimes just beneficial to one and disastrous to the other. Installation Art, Architecture and Purpose An important aspect in the analysis of architecture and installation art and the times the two are intersecting each other and invading each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s space is hinged on purpose Ã¢â¬â the purpose of the artist and the purpose of the person who allowed the creation of the installation art or architecture (or both), which is usually the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s financier or benefactor. What is the purpose of the installation art and what is the purpose of architecture? This will take a long discussion starting with the origins of the two. Architecture was primarily created so that the creation of a functional structure (both permanent and temporary) can also feature aesthetics at the same time. However, the creation places more importance to functionality and usability than beauty and aesthetics. Installation art, on the other hand, is hinged strongly on artistic background. The focus of installation art is art itself and not functionality. Therefore, when the two collide in a single space, there is a fight between which should prevail in the space Ã¢â¬â is it architecture and its functionality or installation art and itÃ¢â¬â¢s more artistic and aesthetic purpose? For those who give installation art a space, their main reason is its humanistic impact on the viewer Ã¢â¬â art appreciation, and even detoxification from stress through the beauty in art. An ideal example is Spaceplace created by Maurice Agis and Peter Jones, which was created for its non-functional purpose and yet the artists believe that there is an important role of the installation art nonetheless. This is found in how the artwork impacts the audience, particularly in the personal level depending on how the artwork affects the audience/viewer (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). They are the first to admit that Spaceplace is more aesthetic than traditional functional; critics and observers believed that such was the case (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). Ã¢â¬Å"The aim of Spaceplace was to create a new environment based on aesthetically controlled considerations rather than conventional functional issues (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). Ã¢â¬ This is a clear differentiation of installation art and architecture. Spaceplace was purely installation art. The sole functionality of this is to affect the audience/people and not to be something that should be used in a manner that architectural works are utilized for their functionality. It may not be functional based on what Ã¢â¬Å"functionalÃ¢â¬ is often understood (i. e. something that has practical use or something that is useful) but its effect on the audience/people is nonetheless important. Spaceplace is Ã¢â¬Å"an installation that explored the relationship between simple rectangular forms in order to create abstract non-functional spaces that wereÃ¢â¬ ¦ related to the human body. The work was an attempt by the artists to provide a foil to the chaotic spaces of everyday human activity (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). Ã¢â¬ The artists added that the other purpose of this particular installation art is to have the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s sensory activity stimulated in a positive way (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). Often, architecture and installation art does not cross each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s path. The invasion of the space allotted for the two are often separate, especially when there are spaces that are allotted for art works and there are spaces allotted for strictly architectural endeavors and works. For one, practical and functional creations are often delegated to architectural works; while installation art is often given space only inside art galleries which allots space for art forms like installation art and not to architecture. Take for example, Maurice AgisÃ¢â¬â¢s Spaceplace Ã¢â¬â it is an installation art that required the use of a large space. The art gallery gave them this space, therefore, making it unnecessary for the installation art to invade architectural spaces because they have their own space wherein they can showcase themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"The installation therefore relied totally on the provision of a separate shelter environment in the form of gallery space (Kronenburg, 2003, p. 229). Ã¢â¬ But this situation was actually met with negativity especially by the artists because the artists like Agis himself believes that confining the installation art in gallery spaces actually pushes the artworks farther from the public and the public experience, which was the main goal of the installation art in the first place.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Home Ã » Business Ã » Economics Ã » Report on Procudure for Distributing Loans and Advance at Dhaka Bank Report on Procudure for Distributing Loans and Advance at Dhaka Bank on March 20, 2013 in Economics [pic][pic]1. a. Introduction Internship program is a pre-requisite for acquiring M. B. A. degree. Before completion of the degree, a student must, undergo the Internship program. As the classroom discussion alone cannot make a student perfect in handling the real business situation, therefore, it is an opportunity for the students to know about the real life situation through this program.The program consists of three phases: 1. The orientation of the Intern with the organization, its function and performance. 2. The project work pertaining to a particular problem or problems matching with the InternÃ¢â¬â¢s area of specialization and organizational requirement. 3. The report writing to summarize the InternÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis, findings and achievements in the proceeding of the fo llowings. 1. b. Objectives of the Report: The report has two objectives: 1. General Objective 2. Specific Objective 1) General objectives of the report: The general objective of the report is to complete the internship.As per requirement of MBA program of Chittagong University, a student need to work in a business organization for two months to acquire practical knowledge about real business operations of a company. 2) Specific objective of the report: The specific objective of this report is to find and analyze the Credit facilities (its outstanding, recovery, classified loans etc), approval and monitoring process of Dhaka Bank Limited, Local office. It will also include gathering an idea about the securities behind the loan facilities and issuing different bank guarantees.The detail objectives of my study are as follows- Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã To access the credit structure of banks in practice. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã To measure the effectiveness of the selected banks in utilization of their available deposit and resources. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã To identify the relationship with their customers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã To identify the loan recovery performances of the selected banks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã To find out the deposit utilization problems. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã To find out the implementation of credit risk management policy of the selected banks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã To find out the implementation of the credit risk grading manual of Bangladesh bank by the selected banks. To find out the unsound credit according to the credit risk management policy. 1. c. Methodology Methodology of the study: This report is mainly prepared by the secondary sources of information & some few primary sources of information like Ã¢â¬â O Direct observation. O Information discussion with professionals. O Questioning the concerned persons. The secondary sources of my information Ã¢â¬â O Annual reports of DBL. O Credit rating report of DBL by credit rating information & services limited. O Desk report of the related department. O Credit manual information. O Different reference books of the library.O Some of my course elements as related to this report. 1. d . Scope of the study: This report will cover an organizational overview of Dhaka bank. It will give a wide view of the different stages of credit appraisal system of Dhaka bank, starting from the loan application to Loan disbursement and the comparison between standard and existing credit appraisal system of a Bank. The study is organized as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã Credit profile of the selected banks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã Loan recovery. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã The nature of default. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã Credit management and guidelines. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã Analysis of the findings and recommendation. 1. e.Limitations There are some limitations I had to face while preparing this report. It is very difficult to collect some of the important data and information. There is some information very secret and the Bank didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to provide this information. But this information may help to build a go od report. Another limitation is availability of the data. The bank doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have sufficient documents of the interest amount they collect from different loans. For this there is no specific profit calculation of the credit department. So, These kinds of limitations I faced while preparing the report. . a. Dhaka Bank Limited DHAKA BANK LIMITED was incorporated as a public limited Company on 6th April 1995 under the company act. 1994 and started itÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial operation on June 05, 1995 as a private sector bank. The bank started its journey with an authorized capital of Tk. 1,000. 00 million and paid up capital of Tk. 100. 00 million. The strength of a bank depends on its management team. The Employer in Dhaka Bank is proud to have a team of highly motivated, well-educated and experienced executives who have been contributing substantially in the continued progress of the bank.The marketing activities at the Dhaka Bank are very implicit and vast comparing to that of oth er bank in the country today. The Philosophy of the bank is Ã¢â¬Å"EXCELENCE IN BANKINGÃ¢â¬ . Dhaka Bank is always willing to offer new product features to the client. Besides the applications of these products or services are prepared in a very modern way so that the service can be provided in least time required. The Credit facilities approved by Dhaka Bank are increasing day by day because of its well-organized and trained management and also well-equipped facilities.In recent time banking sector becomes very competitive and without giving good and attractive facilities and service no bank can survive in this time. Dhaka Bank is also trying to provide good service to keep going with this competition. 2. b. Mission Statement: To be the premier financial institution in the country providing high quality products & services backed by latest technology and a team of highly motivated personnel to deliver Excellence in Banking. 2. c. Vision Statement: At Dhaka Bank, we draw our inspi ration from the distant stars.Our term is committed to assure a standard that6 makes every banking transaction a pleasurable experience. Our endeavor is to offer you razor sharp sparkle through accuracy, reliability, timely delivery, cutting edge technology, and tailored solution for business needs, global reach in trade and commerce and high yield on your investments. Our people, products and processes are aligned to meet the demand of our discerning customers. Our goal is to achieve a distinction like the luminaries in the sky. Our prime objective is to deliver a quality that demonstrates a true reflection of our vision- Excellence in Banking. . d. Slogan: Excellence in Banking. 2. e. Company Philosophy The motto or the philosophy of the Bank is Ã¢â¬Å"Excellence in BankingÃ¢â¬ . Whether in Personal, Corporate, Treasury or Trade transactions of Dhaka Bank Limited is committed to provide the best. Meeting the demand of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s discerning customers is not the sole object ive. The Bank endeavor to deliver a quality that makes every transaction a pleasurable experience. Dhaka Bank feels that, if they can meet maximum clientele requirements in less time with efficiency, then they will be able to accomplish a successful business in the world of banking.Their main objective is Ã¢â¬â they want to provide every single customer service available in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s banking procedure for their clientele. Thus they can guarantee the excellence in banking to their valuable customers. 2. f. Company Activities and Performances Paid up Capital The paid up capital of Dhaka Bank Limited amounted to Tk. 1,547 million as on December 31, 2008 which was Tk. 100 million when the Bank started its operation. The total equity (capital and reserves) of the Bank as on December 31, 2008 stood at Tk. 3125 million. Deposits A strong deposit base is critical for success of a bank.During the years the Bank has mobilized a substantial amount in deposits in transactional and savin gs account. The deposit base of the bank continued to register a steady growth and stood at Tk. 48,731 million excluding call as of 31 December 2008 compared to Tk. 41,554 million of the previous year registered a 17% growth. Investment Dhaka Bank has diversified its investment portfolio through Lease Financing, Hire Purchase, and Capital Market Operations besides the investment in treasury bills and Prize Bonds. The emphasis on high quality investment has ensured the bank to maximize its profit.Dhaka Bank Limited is a member of the Dhaka Stock Exchange and Chittagong Stock Exchange. A specialized unit of the Bank, the Investment Division manages the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio and actively participates in the screen-based on-line trading of both the Stock Exchanges. Profit Dhaka Bank Limited registered an operating profit of Tk. 2,010 million in 2008 compared to Tk. 1,183 million in 2007 making a growth of 70%. After all provisions including general provisions on unclassified loans, pr ofit before tax stood at Tk. 1,531 million. Provision for tax for the year 2008 amounted to Tk. 27 million. The net profit of the bank as on 31 December 2008 stood at Tk. 704 million compared to previous yearÃ¢â¬â¢s Tk. 580 million making growth of 21%. Earning per share (EPS) was Tk. 46. 06 in 2007 compared to Tk. 45. 17 in 2007. Loans and Advances The Bank implemented the system of credit risk assessment and lending procedures by stricter separation of responsibilities between risk assessment, lending decisions and monitoring functions to improve the quality and soundness of loan portfolio. The Bank recorded a 17 % growth in advances with a local loans and advances portfolio of Tk. 9,972 million at the end of December 2008 compared to Tk. 34049 million at the end of December 2007. As of 31 December 2008, 96. 85 % of the total BankÃ¢â¬â¢s loan portfolio was regular while only 3. 15 % of the total portfolio was non-performing as compared to 1. 64 % of 2007. Bank made required pr ovision as on 31 December against performing loans as per rate and classification norm provided by Bangladesh Bank (se note-2c). The volume of non-performing loans stood at Tk. 1,258 million in 2008 from Tk. 554 million in 2007. Of the total loan provision of Tk. 04 million, Tk. 465 million was general provision, which was 51 % of total provision. The rest Tk. 439 million was against the classified accounts. 1. Non-performing loan 2. Regular Loan A wide range of business industries and sectors constitutes the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s advance portfolio. Major sectors where the Bank extended credit include steel and engineering, ship breaking, edible oil, sugar, housing and construction, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electronic and automobiles, energy and power, service industries, trade finance, personal or consumer credit, leasing etc.The Bank continued to support Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and expended credit facilities to them through its SME Cell. Sector wise allocation of advances re veals a well-diversified portfolio of the Bank with balance exposure in different sectors. High concentration sectors are textile and garment industries with outstanding of Tk. 7,524 million, housing and construction with Tk. 4,093 million, food and allied industries with Tk. 2,949 million and engineering and metal including ship braking with Tk. 1,903 million as at 31 December 2008. Customer ServiceCustomer is in the core of everything a service-oriented company does. Accuracy, reliability, and timely delivery are the key elements of the Dhaka BankÃ¢â¬â¢s service. Well-qualified and experienced officials always prepared to provide efficient, personalized and quality service man Dhaka Bank Limited. The banks prime objective is to provide high quality product and services to the customers. The bank also performs according to the needs of its corporate clients and provides a comprehensive range of financial services to national and multinational companies. International Trade & Fore ign ExchangeInternational trade constituted the major business activity conducted by the bank. Dhaka Bank offer a full range of trade finance services, namely, Issue, Advising and Confirmation of documentary Credits; arranging forward Exchange cover; Pre-shipment and post- shipment finance; Negotiation and purchase of Export bill; Discounting of bills of Exchange, Collection of bills etc. In the year 2008, Dhaka Bank Limited was active in extending services to their valued clients related with import business. As of 31st December 2008 the import volume was Tk. 49,496 million compared to the volume of 2006 for Tk. 6,277 million marking as increase of 7% from the last year. Dhaka Bank Limited experienced sound growth of export business in 2007 from 2006. The volume of export business rose to Tk. 31,081 million from Tk. 23,269 million in 2007 showing an increase of 34%. Branches Dhaka Bank has opened already 41 branches in different Cities, Places and areas in Dhaka and also in Chittag ong, Sylhet, Narayangonj, Norshingdi and Savar. This shows the banks commitment to provide services to their valued customers through an extensive branch network at all commercially important places across the country.They also have planned to open more branches in the sort coming year. These branches are well decorated and well secured with the new technologies. Human Resources and Training The driving force behind Dhaka Bank has always its employees. The bank recognizes that professional development of its people is vital to establishing workers as a provider of quality service. In this regard, the bank have expanded its training facilities and set up a full-fledged training institute at SaraTower, Motijheel, Dhaka. Environmental Management ProgramThe BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Environmental Management Program stipulates adherence with environmental, health and safety regulations and guidelines, refraining from business that impairs the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, as sessing an mitigating risks concerning environment, health and safety issues that the bank undertake. Community Service The Bank extends assistance to socio-cultural and community development programs. During the years under review, the Bank had provided support to a number of community welfare programs. At present Dhaka Bank assist the National Hokey Federation. Technologies, Products and ServicesDhaka BankÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services are regularly upgraded and realigned to fulfil customer expectation. Their delivery standards are constantly monitored and improved to assure the highest satisfaction. The bank specially emphasizes on the service base on technologies. Because the life became very fast and people want take service within sort time. The consumer-banking sector of the Bank deals with number of tasks related to various services. The products that are recently being offered by the bank are as follows Ã¢â¬â Ã Accounts: Dhaka Bank provides the Savings Account; Curren t Account; Short Term Deposit; Fixed Deposit Receipt etc. or the customers. ATM (Automated Teller Machine): Dhaka Bank ATM Cards enable their valued customers to carry out a variety of banking transactions 24 hours a day. Credit Cards: Dhaka Bank Credit Card has earned wide acceptability and reputation within a very short time. The Bank has developed the process such that it can deliver the Credit Card within only 7 days against security; for unsecured cards it takes only 10 days. Phone banking: Dhaka Bank phone banking service allows customers to conduct a variety of transactions by simply making a phone from anywhere.Customers can inquire about the balance in their account, check transaction details or request for account statement by fax or e-mail. Locker: By this facility customers can put their valuable things such as jewelry items, valuable papers etc. for the safety reason. Consumer Credit: Dhaka Bank also provides consumer credit facilities with very attractive terms and con ditions. Industrial Loan: Loans issued for purchasing equipment, inventories, plants, payrolls etc. Any Branch Banking: By this customers can transact from any branch insight the country.Utility Bill Payment: Customers can pay different utility bill such as phone bill, credit card bill etc. 3. a. Bank: Banks are among the most important financial institutions in the economy. They are the principle source of credit (loanable fund) for millions of households (individuals and families) and for most local units of government. Moreover, for small businesses ranging from grocery stores to automobile dealers, banks are often the major source of credit to stock the shelves with merchandise or to fill a dealerÃ¢â¬â¢s showroom with new goods.When the business and consumers need financial information and financial planning, it is the bankers to whom they turn most frequently for advice and council. 3. b. Types of Bank Loans: The banks make a wide variety of loans to a wide variety of custome rs for many different purposes-from purchasing automobiles and buying new furniture, taking dream vacations and pursuing college education to constructing homes and office buildings. Bank loans may be divided into the following broad categories of loans, delineated by their purpose: Ã 1.Real Estate Loans, which are secured by real property-land, buildings, and other structures- and include short-term loans for construction and land development and longer-term loans to finance the purchase of farmland, residential, and commercial structures etc. 2. Financial institution Loans, including credit to banks, insurance companies, finance companies, and other financial institutions. 3. Agricultural Loans, extended to farm and ranch operations to assist in planting and harvesting crops and to support the feeding and care of livestock. 4.Commercial and Industrial Loans, granted to business to cover such expenses as purchasing inventories, plant, and equipment, paying taxes, and meeting payr olls and other operating expenses. 5. Loans to Individuals, including credit to finance the purchase of automobiles, homes, appliances and other retail goods to repair and modernize homes, cover the cost of medical care and other personal expenses, either extended directly to individuals or indirectly through retail dealers. 6. Lease Financing Receivables, where the bank buys equipment or vehicles and leases them to its customers.Among the categories, the largest volume is in the real estate loans. The next largest category is commercial and industrial loans. 7. Asset-based Loans, loans secured by a business firmÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, particularly accounts receivable and inventory. Installment Loans, credits that is repayable in two or more consecutive payments, usually on a monthly or quarterly basis. 9. Letter of credits, a legal notice in which a bank or other institution guarantees the credit of one of its customers who is borrowing from another institution. 0. Retail Credit, smaller -denomination loans extended to individuals and families as well as to small business. 11. Term loans, credit extended for longer than one year and designed to fund longer-term business investments, such as the purchase of equipment or the construction of new physical facility. Term Loans are designed to fund long-and medium-term business investments, such as the purchase of equipment or the construction of physical facilities, covering a period longer than one year.Usually the borrowing firm applies for a lump-sum loan based on the budgeted cost of its proposed project and then pledges to repay the loan in a series of installment. 12. Working Capital loan, provide businesses with short-run credit, lasting from a few days to about one year. Working Capital Loans are most often used to fund the purchase of inventories in order to put goods on shelves or to purchase raw materials; thus, they come closest to the traditional self-liquidating loan described above.Frequently the Working C apital Loan is designed to cover seasonal peaks in the business customerÃ¢â¬â¢s production levels and credit needs. 3. c. Credit Analysis: The division of the bank responsible for analyzing and making recommendations on the fate of most loan applications is the credit department. This department must satisfactorily answer three major questions regarding each loan applicat 1. Is the Borrower Creditworthy and how know that? The question must be dealt with before any other is whether or not the customer can service the loan- that is, pay out the credit when due, with a comfortable margin for error.This usually involves a detailed study of six aspects of the loan application: Ã¢â¬â Character Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã°Å¸â¢ well defined purpose for loan request and a serious intention to repay), Capacity Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã°Å¸â¢ proper authority to request for the loan and legal standing to sign a loan agreement), Cash Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã°Å¸â¢ ability to generate enough cash, in the form of cash flow), Collateral Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã°Å¸â¢ enough quality assets to provide adequate support for the loan), Conditions Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã°Å¸â¢ aware borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s line of work and also economic conditions), and Control Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã : All must be satisfactory for the loan to be a good ne from the lenderÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. 2. Can the loan agreement be properly structured and documented so that the bank and depositors are adequately protected and the customer has a high probability of being able to service the loan without excessive strain? The loan officer is responsible to both the customer and the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s depositors and stockholders must seek to satisfy the demands off all. This requires, first, the drafting of a loan agreement that meets the borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s need for funds with a comfortable repayment schedule.The borrower must be able to comfortably handle any required loan payments, because the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s success depends fundamentally on the success of its customers. If a major borrower gets into trouble because it is unable to service a loan, the bank may find itself in serious trouble as well. So, the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s loan officer must be a financial counselor to customers as well as a conduit for their loan applicants. 3. Can the bank perfect its claim against the assets or earnings of the customer so that, in the event of default, bank funds can be recovered rapidly at low cost and with low risk?While large corporations and other borrowers with impeccable credit ratings often borrow unsecured, with no specific collateral pledged behind their loans except their reputation and ability to generate earnings, most borrowers at one time or another will be asked to pledge some their assets or to personally guarantee th e repayment of their loans. Getting a pledge of certain borrower assets as collateral behind a loan really serves two purposes for a lender.If the borrower cannot pay, the pledge of collateral gives the lender the right to seize and sell those assets designated as loan collateral, using the proceeds of the sale to cover what the borrower did not pay back. Secondly, collateralization of a loan gives the lender a psychological advantage over the borrower. Because specific assets may be at the stake a borrower feels more obligated to work hard to repay his or her loan and avoid losing valuable assets. The most popular assets pledged as collateral for bank loans are- Accounts Receivable, Factoring, Inventory, Real Property, Personal Property, Personal Guarantee etc. . d. Loan Review: Banks today use a variety of different loan review procedures; nearly all banks follow a few general principles. These include: 1)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Carrying out reviews of all typ es of loans on a periodic basis- for example, every 30, 60, or 90 days the largest loans outstanding may be routinely examined, along with a random sample of smaller loans. 2)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Structuring the loan review process carefully to make sure the most important features of each loan are checked. )Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Reviewing most frequently the largest loans, because default in these credit agreements could seriously affect the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s own financial conditions. 4)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Conducting more frequent reviews of troubled loans, with the frequency of review increasing as the problems surrounding any particular loan increase. 5)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Accelerating the loan review schedule if the economy slows down or if the industries in which the bank has made a substantial portion of its loans develop significant problems. 3. e. Handling Problem Loans:Inevitably, d espite the safeguards most banks build in their lending programs, some loans on a bankÃ¢â¬â¢s books will become problem loans. Usually this means the borrower has missed one or more promised payments or the collateral pledged behind a loan has declined significantly in value. The process of recovering the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s funds from a problem loan situation- suggests the following key steps: 1)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Always keeps the goal of loan workouts firmly in mind: to maximize the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s chances for the full recovery of its funds. )Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The rapid detection and reporting of any problems with a loan are essential: delay often worsens a problem loan situation. 3)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Keep the loan workout responsibility separate from the lending function to avoid possible conflicts of interest for the loan offers. 4)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Estimate what resources are ava ilable to collect the troubled loan. 5)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Loan workout personnel should conduct a tax and litigation search to see if the borrower has other unpaid obligations and many other processes. CREDIT MANAGEMENT: POLICY & PROCEDURESIntroduction: In general, a banking system aggregates a high number of low value deposits to fund enterprises with a smaller number of high value loans. This intermediation through a well functioning bank helps to achieve some economic benefits for the depositors, the borrowers and above all Ã¢â¬â the economy in the following ways: The depositors: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Higher return Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lower risk Ã¢â¬ ¢ Greater liquidity The borrowers: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Availability of fund for all credit worthy borrowers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Thus allows to enterprises grow and expand The economy Economic growth is maximized as the banks channels the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s scare financial resources into those financial opportunities with maximum return Ã¢â¬ ¢ Thus profit able enterprises receive funding, grow and expand. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Loss making enterprises are refused funding and allowed to go out of the business Ã¢â¬â thus saving the economy from drainage of resources. The bank must allocate loans effectively for achieving these broad objectives of the economy and the pre-requisites are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Banks are able to identify reliably those enterprises that can repay their loans. Banks allows loans to those enterprises likely to yield high return and deny loan to those likely to yield low or negative returns. While identifying profitable enterprises, the bank Ã¢â¬â in fact Ã¢â¬â identifies risks of the borrower and business in order to allow loan in the context of its risk Ã¢â¬â return profile. Credit risk management (CRM) is a dynamic process, which enables banks to proactively manage loan portfolios. Four major areas of CRM are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Policy Ã¢â¬â lending guidelines Ã¢â¬ ¢ Procedure Ã¢â¬â evaluating viability and associate risks of b usiness enterprises. Organizational structure Ã¢â¬â segregation of risk taking and risk approving authority Ã¢â¬ ¢ Responsibility Ã¢â¬â decision making and accountability A clear understanding of the four areas are crucial for maximizing bankÃ¢â¬â¢s earning by carefully evaluating credit risks and attempting to minimize those risks. 4. a. Policy objectives: 1) Maximize BankÃ¢â¬â¢s earning from loan portfolio 2) Improve quality of loan portfolio to maximize earnings by: a) To keep non-performing assets below 10% b) Arresting new loans to become classified. ) Utmost emphasis on loan sanctioning is to be given in order to improve quality of the loan portfolio. Credit facilities are to be considered solely on viability of business / enterprises / project / undertaking having adequate cash flows to adjust the loans, and management capacity of the borrower to run the business profitably. 4) Evaluate credit risks before sanctioning, which may hamper generation of the projected c ash flows of the borrower and might delay or hinder repayment of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s loan. ) Monitoring continuously performances of the financed projects / business / enterprises will be bankÃ¢â¬â¢s main trust for ensuring repayment of the loan, and receiving early warning (EL) for taking timely corrective measures. 6) Price the loans on the basis of loan pricing module of the bank focusing on risk rating of the borrower. 7) Strict adherence to Bangladesh BankÃ¢â¬â¢s policy guidelines 4. b. Lending guidelines As the very purpose bankÃ¢â¬â¢s credit strategy is to determine the risk appetite of the bank, so bankÃ¢â¬â¢s focus should be to maintain a credit portfolio to keeping in mind of our risk absorbing capacity.Thus its strategy will be invigoration loan processing steps including identifying, measuring, containing risks as well as maintaining a balance portfolio through minimizing loan concentration, encouraging loan diversification, expanding product range, streamlining securi ty, insurance etc. as buffer against unexpected cash flow. Types of credit facilities Bank will go for: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Term financing for new project and BRME of existing projects (Large, Medium, SE) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Working capital for industries, trading, services and others (Large, Medium, SE) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Import and export Finance Lease Finance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumer Finance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fee Business Ã¢â¬ ¢ Islamic mode of finance Single borrower/ Group limits / Large Loans / Syndication The limit for single client / group under one obligor concept will be as under: 1. The total credit facilities by a bank to any single person or enterprise or organization of a group shall not any point of time exceed 35% of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital subject to the condition that the maximum outstanding against fund based financing facilities (fund facilities) shall not exceed 15% of the total capital. 2. Non-funded credit facilities, e. g. etter of credit, guarantee etc. can be extended to a single large borrower. But under no circumstances, the total amount of the funded and non-funded credit facilities shall exceed 35% of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital 3. However, in case of export sector, single borrower limit shall be 50% of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital. But funded facilities in the form of export credit shall not 15% of the total capital Ã Large loan 1. Loan sanctioned to any individual or enterprise or any organization of a group amounting to 10% or more of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital shall be considered as large loan. 2.The bank shall be able to sanction large loans as per the following limits set against their respective classified loans: |Rate of net classified loans |The highest rate fixed for large loans against bankÃ¢â¬â¢s total | | |loans & advances | |Up to 5% |56% | |More than 5% but up to 10% |52% | |More than 10% but up to 15% |48% | |More than 15% but up to 20% |44% | |More than 20% |40% | 3. In order to determine the above maximum ceiling for large loans, all on-fund ed credit facilities e. g. letter of credit, guarantee etc. shall also be considered to arrive 50% credit equivalent. However the entire amount of non-funded credit facilities shall be included while determining the total credit facilities provided to an individual or an enterprise or an organization or a group. 4. A Public Limited Company, which has 50% or more public share holdings, shall not be considered as an enterprise / organization of any group. 5. In case of credit facilities provided against government guarantees, the aforementioned restrictions shall not apply 6. In the case of loans backed by cash and excusable securities (e. g.FDR), the actual lending facilities shall be determined by deducting the amount of such securities from the outstanding balance of the loans. 7. Banks shall collect the information to the borrowers from Credit Information Bureau (CIB) of Bangladesh Bank before sanctioning, renewing or rescheduling loans to ensure that credit facilities are not pro vided to defaulters. 8. Banks shall perform Lending Risk Analysis (LRA) before sanctioning or renewing large loans. If the rating of an LRA turns to be Ã¢â¬Å"marginalÃ¢â¬ , a bank shall not sanction large loan, but it can consider renewal of an existing large loan taking into account other favorable conditions and factors. However, if the result of an LRA is unsatisfactory, neither sanction nor renewal of large loans shall be considered. 9.While sanctioning or renewing large loan, a bank shall assess borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s overall debt repayment capacity taking into consideration the borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s liabilities with other banks and financial institutions. 10. A bank shall examine its borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s Cash flow Statement, Audited Balance Sheet, income Statement and other financial statement to make sure that the borrower has the ability to repay the loan. Term Financing and Syndication Like large volume of loan, long term financing is one of the riskiest areas of the bank because of long duration of repayment. Long duration casts uncertainties on repayment as variable with which financial and other projections are made very widely in a dynamic global economic scenario.Thus utmost care is to be exercised while considering long term financing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Long term relationship with the borrower is prerequisite for considering term financing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Due diligence is to be exercised for accessing viability of the projects in terms of Management ability, Market gap, Technical suitability, Financial viability. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information on projects should be adequate and reliable Ã¢â¬ ¢ Minimum information for project viability analysis is to be given. Syndication Syndication means joint financing by more than one bank to the same clients against a common security basically, to spread the risk. It also provides a scope for an independent evaluation of risk and focused monitoring by the agent / lead bank.In syndication financing banks also enter into an agreement that one of t he lenders may act as Lead Bank, who has to co-ordinate the activities at various stages of handling the proposal i. e. appraisal, sanction, documentation sharing of the security, disbursement, inspection, follow Ã¢â¬â up, recovery etc. it may also call meetings of syndication members, whenever necessary to finalize any decision Discouraged business types In the context of present economic situation vis-a-vis government policy as well as market scenario, the following industries and lending activities are considered as discouraged Ã¢â¬ ¢ Military Equipment / Weapon Finance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Highly leveraged Transactions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Finance of speculative business Logging, Mineral Extraction/ Mining or other activity that is ethically or environmentally sensitive Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lending to companies listed on CIB black list or known defaulters Ã¢â¬ ¢ Counter parties in countries subject to UN sanctions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Share lending Ã¢â¬ ¢ Taking an equity stake in borrowers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lending to holding compan ies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bridge loans relying on equity / debt issuance as a source of repayment Loan facility parameters Size: Funded: maximum 15% of BankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital : Funded + Non Funded: 1)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shall not exceed 35% of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital 2)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Maximum 50% of BankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital for export sector. (Funded facility shall also not exceed 15% of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s total capital). Tenor: Short term: Maximum 12 months Medium Term: Maximum 5 years Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Long Term: Maximum 15 yearsMargin: To be determined by Banker Customer relationship and nature of business. Security: Return of Banks funding to any business is ensured primarily on the cash flow of the business. A smooth flow of cash in the business requires efficient management competence in conducting the business in a given market. However as the market never remains stable owing to various uncontrollable factors, the continuity of well- managed business cash flow is difficult to visualize in the long run. As such to ensure realization of Banks finance in case of any eventuality, other adequate security coverage deemed necessary with a view to protects interest of the bank. General Covenants Bank shall not extend any credit facility to any defaulter as defined in the bank company act 1991(clean CIB report required. ) Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall have valid Trade license, Ã¢â¬ ¢ In case of partnership firm there must be a partnership deed duly notarized / registered. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Limited Company must be registered with the Registrar of Joint Stock Company. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã Directors and other loans will be subordinated to Dhaka Banks loan. Directors loan (if any) will be interest free and no dividend will be declared/paid before full adjustment of Term Loan of Dhaka Bank. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall submit annual audited/un-audited/projected financial statements regularly where applicable. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall maintain cur rent ratio of not less than 1. 5 times.. The borrower shall obtain and maintain in full force and effect all Government of Bangladesh (GOB) authorizations, licenses and permits required to implement and operate Borrowers business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall maintain all insurance as detailed in Loan Documents. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall maintain satisfactory swing/turnover of the limit in case of continuous loans/advance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall pay all fees , duties , taxes etc, that are due to the Government of Bangladesh (except where waivers or deferrals have been granted by Government of Bangladesh) when due. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall not create any charge, mortgage or any encumbrances of any other security interest over any of its assets without the prior written consent of the Bank. The borrower shall not avail any credit facility from other source without the prior written consent of the bank. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall not make any amendment/alteration in the CompanyÃ¢â ¬â¢s Memorandum & Articles of Association without obtaining prior approval of Dhaka Bank Ltd in writing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The borrower shall not furnish any corporate guarantee to other firm/company without Banks permission. Events of Default Bank will have the right to call back the Loan/Advance in the event of default under the following circumstances: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Failure to repay Ã¢â¬ ¢ Breach of Covenants of the loan agreement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bankruptcy or liquidation or insolvency event affecting the Borrower. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Occurrence of a material adverse change in the financial position of the Borrower. Any change in GOB directives, which in the opinion of the Lenders would prejudice the Borrowers ability to meet the financial obligations in respect of this facility, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Any security interest over any asset of the Borrower becomes enforceable or any execution or distress is levied against or any person is entitled to or does take possession of the whole or any part of the assets or undertakings . Facility Wise Charge Documents %3 |L/C |LTR |BG |TL |CC Hypo/CC Pledge (Key Stock to | | | | | |Bank) | |1. Promissory Note|1. Promissory Note |1. Promissory Note |1. Promissory Note |1. Promissory Note | |2. Letter of |2. Letter of Undertaking |2. Letter of Undertaking |2. Letter of Undertaking |2.Letter of Undertaking | |Undertaking | | | | | |3. A/C Balance |3. A/C Balance confirmation |3. A/C Balance confirmation |3. A/C Balance confirmation |3. A/C Balance confirmation Slip | |confirmation Slip |Slip |Slip |Slip | | |4. Letter of |4. Letter of Continuity |4. Letter of Continuity |4. Letter of Continuity |4. Letter of Continuity | |Continuity | | | | |
Thursday, November 7, 2019
10 Genius Tips for Balancing Test Prep With School SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Getting your SAT/ACT dream score will likely take a considerable time investment. The vast majority of high school students have to spend many hours of studying before they're able to get their desired score. However, your time is limited. You have school, homework, studying, and extracurricular activities. How will you be able to put in the necessary test prep time on top of your other responsibilities? In this article, I'll let you know how you can balance SAT/ACT test prep with school. If you follow my advice, you'll be able to effectively incorporate test prep into your schedule. General Guidance Before you embark on a path to successfully reaching your SAT/ACT goals, you need to have the right mindset. First, you need to believe that you're capable of succeeding. Confidence is crucial to complete any difficult task, including getting a wonderful SAT/ACT score. Most likely, you're not where you want to be right now, but it's essential that you have faith that you can get there. As an SAT teacher, I worked with hundreds of students of all different skill levels, and almost every student who was committed to improving saw significant results. You may not be naturally gifted at math, but with enough practice and focused studying, you can probably get a good Math score. You may struggle with grammar, but if you master the grammar rules that are tested on the SAT/ACT, you should be able to correctly answer the grammar questions. Don't just accept that a weakness will stop you from getting your desired score. You need to believe that you can improve your weaknesses (because you can). Also, you need to be motivated. If you're confident but aren't willing to put in the necessary study time, you won't see much improvement. I understand that many students find it difficult to care about studying for the SAT/ACT. They find the material dull and have so many other priorities and concerns. However, regardless of your college goals, you should realize the importance of the SAT/ACT. Getting a better score will increase your college options and the likelihood that you'll qualify for merit scholarships. Furthermore, a good SAT/ACT score can positively impact your professional future. Some employers ask job applicants to report their standardized test scores. If you find your motivation waning, think of how getting a wonderful SAT/ACT score can benefit you. Finally, if you're going to successfully balance your SAT/ACT studying with school, you need to have a plan. To reach any challenging goal, I think it's important to specifically figure out how you're going to achieve your desired goal. Having a plan will enable you to stay on task and use your time efficiently. Making a Plan Hopefully, you recognize that you can balance school with your test prep, and you realize that you're going to need an effective plan to make that happen. How do you go about making a plan, though? I'll provide you with the steps and detailed instructions to help you come up with a quality SAT/ACT study plan. Determine Your Target Score Before you go through any steps to balance school with your test prep, you should have a goal score for your SAT/ACT. Having a goal will motivate you to stick to your study plan, make you more likely to prioritize your test prep, and help you figure out how much time you need to study. You can determine your target score by averaging the 75th percentile scores for the schools youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in applying to. If you reach the 75th percentile score for a given school, your score will make you an extremely competitive applicant. Find the 75th percentile scores by googling Ã¢â¬Å"(name of school) prepscholar average satÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"(name of school) prepscholar average act.Ã¢â¬ For old SAT scores out of 2400, multiply the 75th percentile score by Ã¢â¦â to determine what the 75th percentile score would be on the current test with a maximum score of 1600. Figure Out How Much Time You Need to Study Once you have a target score, you can determine how much time you need to study before you take the SAT/ACT. Taking this step will allow you to come up with a plan that will help you balance your test prep with school. In order to figure out how much you need to study, you need to know exactly how much you need to improve. Calculate the difference between your target score and your last SAT/ACT. If you've never taken the SAT/ACT, I recommend taking an official practice SAT/ACT simulating real testing conditions to determine where youÃ¢â¬â¢re at and how much you need to improve. Once you know how much you need to improve, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s an estimated breakdown of point improvement per number of study hours for the SAT: 0-50 SAT Total Point Improvement: 10 hours 50-100 Point Improvement: 20 hours 100-200 Point Improvement: 40 hours 200-300 Point Improvement: 80 hours 300-500 Point Improvement: 150 hours+ And hereÃ¢â¬â¢s the same thing for the ACT: 0-1 ACT Composite Point Improvement: 10 hours 1-2 ACT Point Improvement: 20 hours 2-4 ACT Point Improvement: 40 hours 4-6 ACT Point Improvement: 80 hours 6-9 ACT Point Improvement: 150 hours+ How many hours do you need to study? Write Out Your Weekly Schedule At this point, you should know when youÃ¢â¬â¢re planning on taking the test and how many total hours you need to study. Then you can divide the total number of hours you need to study by the number of weeks you have until your test to determine how many hours per week you should be studying. For example, let's say you're planning on taking the ACT in 8 weeks and you want to raise your ACT score by 3 points. Because a 3 point improvement will take roughly 40 hours of studying and you have 8 weeks until the test, you'll have to average about 5 hours of studying per week to reach your target score. Before you determine exactly when youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be studying, write out your weekly schedule with all of your responsibilities. Include all of your weekly tasks: school, homework, extracurriculars, job, etc. Write out your schedule for each day of the week. Perhaps your Tuesday may look something like this: 7:00 AM- wake up 8:00 AM-3:00 PM- school 4:00-6:00- cross country practice 7:30-9:30- homework and studying Create a Plan Now that you know how many hours per week you need to study, you can decide when youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to study based on the time that you currently have available. Write your intended study hours into your typed out weekly schedule. Print out your plan. You can even print out multiple copies and place them where you'll regularly see them. Looking at your intended schedule will remind you of when you need to study, help you commit your schedule to memory, and motivate you to stay on task. Let's add some study time into the hypothetical Tuesday schedule I made: 7:00 AM- wake up 8:00 AM-3:00 PM- school 4:00 PM-6:00 PM- cross country practice 7:30-9:30 PM- homework 10:00-:30 PM- SAT studying This is a pretty challenging schedule. You'll be busy with only limited breaks from 7:00 AM-:30 PM. However, if you're disciplined and motivated, it's feasible to stick to this itinerary. If you're more of a morning person, you can wake up at 5:30 AM to do your SAT studying. Also, if you have to do 5 hours of studying per week, you may only have to schedule SAT/ACT studying for a couple of days. Furthermore, if you have more free time on the weekends, you can save the majority or all your studying for Saturdays and Sundays. Time for test prep! Hooray! Make Your Plan Doable When you create your study plan, be realistic and honest with yourself about what you're capable of doing. If your schedule includes studying for 12 hours on both Saturday and Sunday, you probably should make some adjustments. Even though you may have enough free time to study for 12 hours on Saturday and Sunday, youÃ¢â¬â¢re probably not going to have the energy or concentration to study for 24 hours every weekend. Similarly, if you have trouble waking up in the morning, you shouldn't schedule your SAT/ACT prep for 4:00 AM. You really want to create a schedule that youÃ¢â¬â¢re likely to stick to and will allow you to put in enough prep time to reach your target score. Unfortunately, it's possible that if you don't have much free time, you'll have to create a schedule that's less than ideal. However, you still want to create the most realistic possible schedule. Share Your Plan For accountability, I recommend sharing your plan with those who are willing to help you stick to it. If your parents, siblings, or close friends know your intended schedule, they can encourage and push you when they know itÃ¢â¬â¢s time for you to do your SAT/ACT prep. If you try to deviate from your schedule, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have other people to remind you of your goals and what you should be doing. Keep in mind, though, that you'll be most likely to achieve your goals if you're primarily self-motivated. Evaluate and Adjust Your Plan Regularly During the first week or two of your study plan, keep track of how well youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing and how well your plan is working for you. If the plan you created seems too difficult for you to maintain, then you may need to adjust it so that itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier for you. If you have to make adjustments, do your best not to sacrifice study time you need to reach your target score. Ideally, you'll be able to move your studying to times that work better for you. If your extracurricular activity or work schedule changes after you start your study plan, you may have to alter your prep time accordingly. Also, make sure that your SAT/ACT prep isn't getting in the way of your schoolwork. If your current prep plan is preventing you from finishing your homework or studying for school, then you'll have to make changes. You don't want to sacrifice your grades to reach your target score. In fact, generally, your grades are more important to colleges than your test scores. If your plan isn't working, change it. How to Stay Motivated Perhaps the biggest challenge to successfully balancing school with your test prep is maintaining your motivation up until test day. Many students are able to stick to their plan for a week or two, but they start to slip and neglect their test prep over time. Your study plan will only be effective if you stick to it up until test day. Trust me that I understand the challenges of maintaining your plan. I wasn't a perfect student, and I realize that you'll be tempted to stray from your plan when you'd rather be doing anything other than test prep. I've already mentioned a few tips like printing out your plan and sharing it to help stay on track. Here are some more strategies for you to make the best use of your study time and stay engaged throughout the study process. Set Smaller Goals for Motivation Remember that the number of hours youÃ¢â¬â¢re studying is only one part of the equation to reaching your target score. You need to make sure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re focused when youÃ¢â¬â¢re studying and studying efficiently. Set goals for yourself for each study session and on a weekly basis. For example, if during one of your study sessions, youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to improve on transition questions on SAT Writing, you can set a goal of reviewing my article on transitions and then getting at least 9/10 transition questions right from SAT practice tests. Similarly, you could also set a goal for the week of raising your ACT Science score by two points from your last practice test. Then, you can focus your studying for the week on improving your content weaknesses and doing practice problems. At the end of the week, you can do a complete ACT Science section under test conditions, and hopefully, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to achieve your goal. Leave Time for Fun In trying to balance school with your test prep, realize that outside of school, test prep, and your extracurricular activities, you should be having some fun and leisure time. All work and no play is sad, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to have a difficult time maintaining motivation if youÃ¢â¬â¢re not emotionally healthy. Furthermore, you should be enjoying your youth, spending time with your friends and family, and creating memories that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably look back on more fondly than your SAT/ACT prep. When you create your prep schedule, try not to have every minute of your day devoted to your studies or other obligations. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not terrible to spend a few hours per week engaged in fun activities that may not directly help you get into the college of your dreams. It might be time for a bouncy castle break. (Catrin Austin/Flickr) Reward Yourself Following all of the tips in this article (other than having fun) isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy. Just reading this article is indicative of your determination and willingness to make sacrifices to achieve your goals. IÃ¢â¬â¢m a big believer in positive reinforcement. If you meet one of your daily or weekly goals, feel free to reward yourself for your hard work. You deserve it, and you can use your rewards as further motivation to reach your goals. If you reach your goal of improving your SAT Math section score by 50 points from the previous week, maybe you can reward yourself by going to see a movie youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been wanting to check out or spending an hour posting stories on Snapchat (isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that what the kids do these days?). Final Points Balancing school with your test prep isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible if youÃ¢â¬â¢re diligent, organized, and plan effectively. If you need help with motivation, organization, or holding yourself accountable, you may greatly benefit from a test prep program like PrepScholar. PrepScholar will help you identify your content weaknesses, inform you (and your parents) how much time you spend studying on a weekly basis, and it will organize your practice so that youÃ¢â¬â¢re able to reach your target score efficiently. What's Next? Are you getting ready for the SAT? Figure out the best way to study. Are you planning to take the ACT? Learn how to study. Are you plagued by test anxiety? Find out how to overcome test anxiety to get your target score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Mammal Species Characteristics Have you ever thought about what makes mammal species different from other vertebrates? If not, Im sure that you have noticed the differences between a snake, which is a reptile, and an elephant. Being a mammal myself, I have always found this particular class of vertebrates very interesting. As you will see, mammals have certain characteristics that differentiate them from other vertebrates. Lets take a look at some of these characteristics. Mammal Characteristics To begin with, mammal species are in the Class Mammalia, within the Subphylum Vertebrata, under the Phylum Chordata, in the Kingdom Animalia. Now that you have that straight, lets look at some specific traits of mammals. One main characteristic that mammals have is a feature that usually stands on end in frightening situations. Can you guess what it is? Yes, its hair or fur, whichever the case may be. This trait is useful in maintaining the constant body temperature that is important to all endothermic animals. Another characteristic is the ability to produce milk. This comes in handy while nourishing babies which are usually born fully developed (exceptions are the monotremes and the marsupials). Fertilization occurs within the reproductive tract of the female and most have a placenta that provides nutrients to the developing embryo. Mammalian young are usually slow to leave the nest, which allows for a longer period of time for the parents to teach skills that are necessary for survival. Respiratory and circulatory features of mammals include a diaphragm for proper lung ventilation and a heart that has four chambers to ensure that blood is circulated appropriately. Mammals can comprehend and learn things, which can be attributed to a larger brain size as compared to vertebrates of similar size. Finally, the existence of teeth that are different in size and function is a trait that is seen among mammals. All of these characteristics (hair, maintaining a constant body temperature, production of milk, internal fertilization, young born fully developed, highly developed circulatory and respiratory systems, larger brain size, and differences in the size and function of teeth) make mammal species unique among the vertebrates.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Is the information society a coherent concept - Essay Example Virtually, there are no segments of human life which are unaffected by information. In political, social, and economic circles, information is vital. The growth of computer and internet related technologies increased the importance of information on human life. These technologies help human life in many ways at present. The term information society has gained popularity only in recent times, after the developments of computer and internet related technologies. An information society is one that makes the best possible use of ICTs. It is a society in which the quality of life, as well as prospects for social change and economic development, depend increasingly upon information and its exploitation. In such a society, living standards, patterns of work and leisure, the education system, and marketplace are all influenced by advances in information and knowledge (Ogbomo & Ogbomo, 2008, p.1). Life without computers or internet is unimaginable at present. Any problems occur to computers or internet may cause huge damages to human life. It should not be forgotten that humankind was under tremendous pressure when Y2K problem aroused early in the beginning of the twenty-first century. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone has his or her more or less well formed opinion about the information society, the Internet and its influence on our everyday lives even if they have never used a computer or surfed the InternetÃ¢â¬ (Pinter, 2008, p.12). Even a layman understands the importance of computers, internet and information at present. Under such circumstances, the concept of information society should be considered as a coherent one. An information society can be built if the people and the government have the will to do so. A development oriented information society is a society in which everyone Ã¢â¬Ëcan create, access, utilize and share information and knowledge, enabling individuals, communities and peoples to achieve their full potential in promoting their sustainable