Thursday, October 31, 2019

The End of the Ottoman Empire Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The End of the Ottoman Empire - Essay Example The Ottoman Empire had been established by the mid of the fifteenth century in the wake of the conquest of Constantinople at the hands of Sultan Mehmet II in 1453 A.D., which lasted for over five and half centuries till the armed forces of the empire had to surrender before the Allies in the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918 (19). The critics pertinently blame the Ottoman caliphs and their inefficiency and unruliness to be one of the most significant reasons behind the empire’s growing weaker and unstable, leading to its ultimate fall eventually. The theorists also view the caliph’s irrational decision to participate in WWI on the German side to be the most effective cause of the empire ruination. Somehow, vested political and economic interests established by Great Britain, Russia and France, and the difference of the religious ideology emulated by the Christian Allies and the Muslim Empire, respectively, could be stated to be the turning point behind the abolishment of the caliphate and the partition of its territories into several sovereign states ultimately in the aftermath of the First World War. There is no doubt in the bitter reality that the empire had turned out to be the sick man of Europe by the end of the nineteenth century; therefore, the four small states appeared on the horizon to inflict a humiliating defeat on the empire during the Balkan War of 1911. However, the sympathetic inclinations demonstrated by the Christian nations, including England, France, Italy and Russia, towards Greece and against the Ottomans in Asia Minor also added their share in the rise of the Greeks and destruction of the Muslim empire (20). The British-led alliance appeared to be determined to exert its influence in different parts of the Ottoman Empire, which could only be possible through launching a formidable attack on the unity of the Muslim community. As a result, the ethnic and racial sentiments were projected and promoted in the hearts and minds o f the Arabs belonging to the Middle East and North Africa, who raised a decisive revolt against the Turkish supremacy and made demands for the separate and independent states to be established on the foundations of absolute sovereignty, where there would be no chances of any interference from the Turkish political domination altogether. Consequently, the sentiments of ethno-racial and regional hatred and prejudice were harboured with the aim of adding fuel to the fire of the Arab nationalism that could lead to the eventual disintegration of the Ottoman Empire (23). Kedourie (22) seems to be justified in making his argument that the caliph ruling over the Ottoman Empire was thought to be the religious and political leader of the entire Muslim community. Consequently, all the Muslim states not only revered him as their religious patron, but also traditionally used to seek spiritual and political guidance from him. Therefore, the certificate issued by the caliph in favour of a ruler wa s considered to be the final

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

British Colonialism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

British Colonialism - Essay Example The British colonial enterprise was one of the largest and most successful making the British Empire one of the largest known empires in human history. Stretching from the Western North American shores, down to the Caribbean, through the Middle East and into Asia, British colonialism was unmatched at its height in sheer global supremacy. The period of 1914 to 1941 is a fascinating period of analysis to study the British colonial empire because it includes the end of the First World War, the interbellum years and the first two years of the Second World War. This time frame captures some dramatic periods in global history and this essay seeks to address how British colonialism changed during this period. From 1914 to 1941, the British Empire had to compete with the emergence of budding nationalism in its colonies and increasing levels of anti-colonial resistance as time progressed. Seeking to explore the impact of the colonial enterprise on the countries of the Middle East and Africa, this paper will discuss European colonialism in Iraq, a country artificially created in the wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following World War I. This analysis will address the impetus for colonialism and the dramatic changes which took place in Iraq during our established time frame.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Uses Of Bernoullis Principle Engineering Essay

The Uses Of Bernoullis Principle Engineering Essay Airplanes experience a lift force on their wings, keeping them up in the air, if they are moving at a sufficient high speed relative to the air and the wing is tilted upward at a small angle, the angle of attack. The upward tilt, as well as the rounded upper surface of the wing, causes the streamlines to be forced upward and to be crowded together above the wing. The area of air flow between any two streamlines is reduced as the streamlines are squished together. Because the air speed is greater above the wing than below it, the pressure above the wing is less than the pressure below the wing, which is Bernoullis principle. Hence, there is a net upward force on the wing called dynamic lift. Experiments show that the speed of air above the wing can even be double the speed of the air below it. Friction between the air and wings exerts a drag force, toward the rear, which must be over come by the planes engines. A flat wing, or the one with symmetric cross section, will experience lift as long as the fron of the wing is tilted even if the attack angle is zero, because the rounded upper surface deflects air up, squeezing the streamlines together. Airplanes Baseball Curve Why a spinning pitched baseball (or tennis ball) curves can also be explained using Bernoullis principle. It is simplest if we put ourselves in the reference frame of the ball, with the air rushing by. Suppose the ball is rotating counterclockwise. A thin layer of air is being dragged around by the ball. We are looking down in the ba Lack of blood to the brain In medicine, one of many applications of Bernoullis principle is to explain a TIA, a transient ischemic attack (meaning a temporary lack of blood supply to the brain). A person suffering a TIA may experience symptoms such as dizziness, double vision, headache and a weakness of the limbs. A TIA can occur as follows. Blood normally flows up to the brain at the back of the head via the two vertebral arteries one going up each side of the neck which meet to form the basilar artery just below the brain. The vertebral arteries issue from the subclavian arteries before the latter pass to the arms. When as arm is exercised vigorously, blood flow increases to meet the needs of the arms muscles. If the subclavian artery on one side of the body is partial blocked, however, as in arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), the blood velocity will have to be higher on that side to supply the needed blood. The increase blood velocity past the opening to the vertebral artery results in lower pr essure (Bernoullis principle). Thus, blood rising in the vertebral artery on the good side at normal pressure can be diverted down into the other vertebral artery because of the low pressure on that side, instead of passing upward to the brain. Hence the blood supply to the brain is reduced. Other Applications A venture tube is essentially a pipe with a narrow constriction (the throat). The flowing air speeds up as it passes through this constriction, so the pressure is lower in the throat. A venturi meter, is used to measure the flow speed f gases and liquids, including blood velocity in arteries. Why does smoke go up a chimney? Its partly because hot air rises (its less dense and therefore buoyant). But Bernoullis principle also plays a role. When wind blows across the top of the chimney, the pressure is less there than inside the house. Hence, air and smoke are pushed up the chimney by the higher indoor pressure. Even on an apparently still night there is usually enough ambient air flow at the top of a chimney to assist upward flow of smoke. If gophers, prairie Bernoullis principle, physical principle formulated by Daniel Bernoulli that states that as the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. The phenomenon described by Bernoullis principle has many practical applications; it is employed in the carburetor and the atomizer, in which air is the moving fluid, and in the aspirator, in which water is the moving fluid. In the first two devices air moving through a tube passes through a constriction, which causes an increase in speed and a corresponding reduction in pressure. As a result, liquid is forced up into the air stream (through a narrow tube that leads from the body of the liquid to the constriction) by the greater atmospheric pressure on the surface of the liquid. In the aspirator air is drawn into a stream of water as the water flows through a constriction. Bernoullis principle can be explained in terms of the law of conservation of energy (see conservation laws, in physics). As a fl uid moves from a wider pipe into a narrower pipe or a constriction, a corresponding volume must move a greater distance forward in the narrower pipe and thus have a greater speed. At the same time, the work done by corresponding volumes in the wider and narrower pipes will be expressed by the product of the pressure and the volume. Since the speed is greater in the narrower pipe, the kinetic energy of that volume is greater. Then, by the law of conservation of energy, this increase in kinetic energy must be balanced by a decrease in the pressure-volume product, or, since the volumes are equal, by a decrease in pressure. Daniel Bernoulli formulated a principle that states that as the velocity of moving fluid or gas is increased, the pressure within the fluid or gas is decreased. Bernoullis principle has in fact many practical applications; it is applied in the carburetor and the atomizer, in which air acts as the moving fluid, and in the aspirator, water is acting as the moving fluid. In the carburetor and atomizer, air travelling through a tube goes through a constriction, which causes an increase in the velocity, and a decrease in the pressure. As a result, the liquid is forced up into the air stream (through a narrow tube that leads from the body of the liquid to the constriction) by the greater atmospheric pressure acting on the liquid. In modern everyday life there are many observations that can be successfully explained by application of Bernoullis principle, even though no real fluid is entirely inviscid [19] and a small viscosity often has a large effect on the flow. Bernoullis Principle can be used to calculate the lift force on an airfoil if you know the behavior of the fluid flow in the vicinity of the foil. For example, if the air flowing past the top surface of an aircraft wing is moving faster than the air flowing past the bottom surface then Bernoullis principle implies that the pressure on the surfaces of the wing will be lower above than below. This pressure difference results in an upwards lift force.[nb 1]HYPERLINK #cite_note-20[20] Whenever the distribution of speed past the top and bottom surfaces of a wing is known, the lift forces can be calculated (to a good approximation) using Bernoullis equations[21] established by Bernoulli over a century before the first man-made wings were used for the purpose of flight. Bernoullis principle does not explain why the air flows faster past the top of the wing and slower past the underside. To understand why, it is helpful to understand circulation, the Kutta condition, and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. The carburetor used in many reciprocating engines contains a venturi to create a region of low pressure to draw fuel into the carburetor and mix it thoroughly with the incoming air. The low pressure in the throat of a venturi can be explained by Bernoullis principle; in the narrow throat, the air is moving at its fastest speed and therefore it is at its lowest pressure. The Pitot tube and static port on an aircraft are used to determine the airspeed of the aircraft. These two devices are connected to the airspeed indicator which determines the dynamic pressure of the airflow past the aircraft. Dynamic pressure is the difference between stagnation pressure and static pressure. Bernoullis principle is used to calibrate the airspeed indicator so that it displays the indicated airspeed appropriate to the dynamic pressure.[22] The flow speed of a fluid can be measured using a device such as a Venturi meter or an orifice plate, which can be placed into a pipeline to reduce the diameter of the flow. For a horizontal device, the continuity equation shows that for an incompressible fluid, the reduction in diameter will cause an increase in the fluid flow speed. Subsequently Bernoullis principle then shows that there must be a decrease in the pressure in the reduced diameter region. This phenomenon is known as the Venturi effect. The maximum possible drain rate for a tank with a hole or tap at the base can be calculated directly from Bernoullis equation, and is found to be proportional to the square root of the height of the fluid in the tank. This is TorricelliHYPERLINK law, showing that Torricellis law is compatible with Bernoullis principle. Viscosity lowers this drain rate. This is reflected in the discharge coefficient which is a function of the Reynolds number and the shape of the orifice.[23] In open-channel hydraulics, a detailed analysis of the Bernoulli theorem and its extension were recently developed.[24] It was proved that the depth-averaged specific energy reaches a minimum in converging accelerating free-surface flow over weirs and flumes (also [25]HYPERLINK #cite_note-Chanson2006-26[26]). Further, in general, a channel control with minimum specific energy in curvilinear flow is not isolated from water waves, as customary state in open-channel hydraulics. The principle also makes it possible for sail-powered craft to travel faster than the wind that propels them (if friction can be sufficiently reduced). If the wind passing in front of the sail is fast enough to experience a significant reduction in pressure, the sail is pulled forward, in addition to being pushed from behind. Although boats in water must contend with the friction of the water along the hull, ice sailing and land sailing vehicles can travel faster than the wind.[27]HYPERLINK #cite_note-28[28] Bernoullis Principle

Friday, October 25, 2019

Dancing to a Different Tune: Autism :: Personal Narrative Writing

Dancing to a Different Tune: Autism I’m sitting in Mrs. Morton’s kindergarten class at 9:37 watching her dark tan leather shoes move back and forth as she recites the alphabet. Unconsciously avoiding eyed contact, as she turns down the row and slowly moves towards my desk (Sperry 22). As Mrs. Morton approaches me, I cower back in fear, unable to deal with the unpredictable and inconsistent nature of human beings (Dawson 112). â€Å"Kenny, why are you not listening to me?† Feeling vulnerable I remain silent, unable to cope with this social situation (Williams 159). So again Mrs. Morton asks, â€Å"Kenny†¦why are you not listening to me?† Responding with echolalia, I pervasively mutter back her words in a monotone voice, â€Å"Not listening to me.† I Reply in a desperate attempt to convey meaning, but in the end only produce meaningless jargon (Sperry 45). When Mrs. Morton hears my reaction she throws her hands up in frustration and returns to reciting the alphabet as she softly mutters, â€Å"This kid must be deaf or something!† (DSM IV 68) Loosing interest in Mrs. Morton and her alphabet I begin to tap my pencil on my desk, unable to stop moving my hands. Repetitive behavior such as this provides an escape from the constant state of arousal that assaults me at this moment (Dawson 67). I twist around in my desk, fidgeting as I try to expel some of my energy (DSM IV 71). Hyperactivity eventually gets the best of me, as I start meandering up and down the isle in my own â€Å"Idiosyncratic fantasy world† as though Mrs. Morton does not exist (Sperry 52). That night as my mom cooks dinner I am drawn by fascination to the sparkling blue flame of our gas stove. Without fear I slowly reach my hands up towards the burner and touch this dangerous flickering light. My mother returns from the bathroom and catches a glimpse of me with my little hands in the flame of the stove. â€Å"No Kenny! The stove is hot. Very hot, do not touch the stove.† She screams at me as I withdraw my hand and look at her with a blank face. I didn’t even feel the burn, until the heat of the flame began scalding away layers of my skin because my threshold for pain is so great (DSM IV 68). Trying to comfort me from injury in which I am unable to express any emotion, my mother and I take a trip to James Beach which is just minutes away from my house in Rhode Island.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Business Organisational Behaviour Essay

Demonstrate the influence of environmental and behavioural factors on corporate size, structure and strategy. (b) Understand the processes of business planning and policy making and the reason for change over time. Percentage of marks awarded for module: This assignment is worth 50% of the total marks for the module Assessment criteria   Explanatory comments on the assessment criteria   Maximum marks for each section   Content, style, relevance, originality   Clear demonstration of rigorous research from recognised authoritative sources. Audience focus. 50%  Format, referencing, bibliography   HarvardÃ'Ž Assignment Task As a retail consultant you have been commissioned by a high street outlet, of your own choice, to prepare a strategy that will help them to compete for many years to come in a rapidly changing environment. The strategy will include methods of recognising how external changes impact upon the firm and the various techniques that may be used in the implementation of change. Consideration must also be given to the structure and size of the firm and how it presents itself to it’s stackholders.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Human resource manageent Essay

Understand the difference between personal management and human resource management 1. 1 Distinguish between personal management and human resource management Human resource management is the study of human resources who are people and work in an organization. There are various definitions of human resource management. Armstrong (2009), states that human resource management is concerned with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organization. This definition is broad and makes clear about human resource management. According to this definition HRM covers all the activities like human capital management, corporate social responsibility, knowledge management, organizational development, performance management, employee relation, reward management which happens in organization for managing people. In other definition Randawa (2007) describes human resource management refers to the policies and practices involved in carrying out the people of human resource aspect of a management position. Armstrong (2009), states that the objective of the human resource management is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people. Human resource management is an organizational function that deals with people in selecting, recruiting, training, communicating, motivating them. On the hand, the domain of the Human resource management is to plan, organise, direct and control the process of these activities into the organization. Personal management is also used to describe the management of people in the organization. Since the last few decades these two concepts have been taken interchangeably. But few scholars still raise the issues to describe these two concepts separately. However the study of human resource management says that the personal management is related to human resources that occupies the functions that deals with the employment of people within the organizations. Cole (2002) argues that personal management describes the same genre of management activity in such organizations. Cole explores the values and importance of personal management and says that personal management has been used to describe t he function of management that deals with the recruitment, employment, training, deployment, safety and departure of employees. Personal management aims to achieve specific efficiency and  justice in managing people because it is more concerned with the role and responsibility of the employees into organizations. It is concerned with job satisfaction, pay, promotion and motivation of employees. For example, job satisfaction and motivation can be judged personally that show the personal management has related with the overall study of human resource of management. It also includes developing and implementing the policies to create supportive environment for the employees. But the recent debate has tried to identify some few separate distinctions in effect of application of personal and human resource management. According to Cole (2002) the following distinctions are given: Personal management covers Human resource management covers 1. Servicing role 2. special department 3. Emphasis on procedures 4. Less flexible approach to staff 5. Focus on employees’ needs 1. Innovative role 2. General Management activity 3. Emphasis on strategy 4. flexible approach 5. Focus on employees requirements 1.2 Access the functions of human resource management of your chosen company Human resource management functions are known as its tasks performed in an organization to provide coordination of human resources. Pattanayak (2005) states that human resource functions are concerned with a variety of activities that significantly influence almost all areas of an organization. HRM functions can be divided into two parts. 1. Primary functions 2. Secondary functions To describe the functions of human resource management I have chosen Tesco which is the biggest and popular supermarket in the UK. Tesco sells foods, daily needs goods, beverages, and electronics. Tesco has extended its storesc  in other countries out of the UK. The goals of the human resource management are to increase the business by using the human resources perfectly. The proper use of human resource brings growth, profitability, competitiveness in the business. Primary functions of human resource management 1. Human resource planning: Planning is related to manage the demand and supply factors of human resource in organizations. Human resource is a basic resource of the organization. All the activities have to perform by human resources so the human resource management plans the strategy to manage the people into organization. Human resource management team of Tesco makes the plan of operation for a year in the beginning of the year. Management sets the policy and guidance for the whole operating process in the business. 2. Equal employment opportunity: Equal opportunity to the employees is a basic legal responsibility of the organization. Therefore human resource management plans to provide the equal opportunity of employment by setting the policy and procedures. 3. Staffing (recruitment and selection): Staffing is one of the most important responsibilities of management. To select the right people, at the right place in the right time is a challenge for management. To recruit the best person, management sets the selection procedures. It is a time consuming process. Human resource management selects the people according its requirement to achieve the organizational goals. 4. Payroll administration: Human resource management team is responsible to make employees’ payroll keeping track of hours of the employee. This is the task to ensure that the employees are receiving appropriate amount of pay for their working hours. Payroll administration is also responsible to calculate the taxes and addition in salary by bonuses, benefits, and overtime work. Tesco has thousands of employees so the payroll administration job of the HRM is very important and complicated. 5. Reward management: Reward management is related to motivation of employees. Reward is a prize or financial return for the better performance which motivates the employees. Human resource management provides extrinsic reward and intrinsic reward to employees. 6. Training and Development: Human resource management provides the training to develop the skills of the employees. Training is a necessary activity to develop the working skills of the people. 7. Performance Management: Performance management is a process to  establish the shared workforce which helps to achieve the organizational goal. HRM should keep the employee aware to achieve the objectives so it works for high performance workforce. 8. Employee relations: Employee relationship can contribute to high productivity, motivation and morale. Good relation of employee can solve the problems easily among each other and it supports the performance. 1.3 Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers Manager is a responsible person to operate the day to day business in Tesco. Line managers do the activities what the store managers do in the store. There are few role and responsibilities of duty managers. 1. Administrate work: Line managers do their job handling the day -to-day operations of the business. Managers control employees in and out log book, control inventory, keep records. 2. Planning: Line Managers are responsible for planning the operations in the business. Line managers in Tesco make the plan to operate the business functions of the day. 3. Direct: Line managers direct the employees and support them to do the work. Managers are the leaders also they guide their subordinates. 4. Evaluate: Line managers evaluate the performance of the employees; they can reward and punish them. 1.4 Analyse the impact of the UK legal and regulatory frame work on human resource management The UK Legal and regulatory Framework on human resource management has protected the employees from unfair discrimination in the work place. It defined and fixed the rights and equal access to job vacancies to everybody, working 40 hour in a week, minimum wages, and working overtime. The law has confirmed the same pay for men and women who do the equal work. Employers are obligated to provide safe and clean environment at their work place. Sex discrimination Act tells men and women are treated equally. The people must not be discriminated against marital status, sex, age, disability, race, sexual orientation, and gender. The law has prohibited all kinds of discriminations and harassment in the work. There are following law and regulations to control discriminations i.e. the equal Pay Act 1970, the sex Discrimination Act1975, The disability discrimination Act 1995, the employment Equality Reg ulations 2003, and The Equality Act 2006. 1.5 Identify and apply 3 strategies that can help line manager to recruit new staff for your chosen company The strategies that I would recommend to the line manager to recruit new staff for Tesco are as follow. a) Arrange for group interaction: This can be one of the effective strategies that a line manager can apply to recruit in Tesco. Group interaction brings out the best of the potential recruit and helps the line manager to understand their competitiveness among the group. b) Use non-traditional media to publish the job: using a non traditional media such as YouTube to advertise the post can reach to a far more group of potential candidates. c) Consider past candidate: This is one of the easiest and far cheaper way of recruitment. Digging in the past files of the candidates helps the line manager to make a decision effectively. 1.6 Critically evaluate the benefits of using a ‘soft system’ of approach of HRM in a business organization ‘Soft System’ approach of HRM is based on a kind of developmental humanism where trust, self regulated behaviour and commitment are at the centre of this strategic approach, with people considered key assets and the source of competitive advantage (Debroux, 2003). Some of the benefits of using this approach of HRM are so below. It maintains collaboration, partnership, goodwill and willingness of entities. It motivates and encourages employees to perform at their par. It turns the working environment to a comfort zone.